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What are the Functions of Lipids?

-provide energy
-energy storage
-protection and insulation
-component of cell membrane

What are the types of Lipid Molecules?

triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols

What are the types of Fatty Acids

saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated

Saturated a type of? does? found in? bonds?

-raises LDL-cholesterol
-coconut oil, butter, cream, cheese
-tend to stay solid
-no double bonds

Monounsaturated fat..found in? What is it in room temperature? bonds?

-olive oil, canola oil, peanut
-liquid in room temp.
-1 double bond

Polyunsaturated fat..found in? What is it in room temp? Bonds?

-vegetable oils, fish oils, canola, cottonseed
-tend to stay liquid in room temperature
-2 or more double bonds

How long is a short chain fatty acid?

fewer than 6 carbons

How long is a medium chain fatty acid?

6-12 carbons

How long is a long chain fatty acid?

14 or more carbons

Partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acids..what are they? why are they? function? found in?

-Hydrogen under pressure
-more solid, less prone to become oxidized
-lowers HDL-C
-raises LDL-C
-margarine, crackers, cookies

What are the types of essential fatty acids?

Linoleic & Alpha-linolenic

Phospholipids..function? made up of?

-helps with fat absorption
-part of the cell membrane
-made up of 1 glycerol 2 fatty acids
-contains hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends

Sterols..what are they? most common sterol?

-rings of carbon

Cholesterol..sources? function?

-produced by animals
-raises LDL-C cholesterol

Lipid Digestion..mouth? stomach hormones? short intestine hormones?

-mouth:not much
-stomach: gastric lipase..not much
-short intestine: cholycystekonin stimulates gall bladder to relase bile and pancreatic lipase
-lipases break the triglyceride into monoacylglyceride and two free fatty acids

What are micelles?

emulsified fat which transports lipid digested product into enterocytes

In the enterocyte, what happens to: short and medium chain fatty acids? Long chain fatty acids?

short and medium:enter circulation
long: reassembled int triglyceride by being combined with cholesterol, phospholipids and small protein

What happens when cholesterol, protein and phospholipids combine?

a lipoprotein called a chylomicron is made which enters the lymph then the bloodstream

What are lipoproteins?

transport lipids & cholesterol in the blood

What is the order in which ATP is made?

Glycolysis, Formation of acetyl-CoA, Citric acid cycle, Electron Transport Chain

What are involved during Glycolysis?

glucose to pyruvate

What are involved during formation of acetyl-coA?

pyruvate to Acetyl CoA + NADH + H + CO2

What are involved during Citric Acid Cycle?

TCA cycle produces CO2, GTP, NADH, FADH

What are involved during ETC?

oxidized NAD & FAD, ATP, Water
at the end of the cycle 36-38 ATP are made

Type 1 Diabetes

autoimmune disease affecting beta cells of pancreas

Type 2 Diabetes

resistance to insulin


low blood sugar

What is a Glycemic Index?

a food's potential to raise blood glucose and insulin levels

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