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36 terms

chapter 10 general pharmacology

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absorption
the process by which medications travel through body tissues until they reach the bloodstream
action
the therapeutic effect of a medication on the body
activated charcoal
an oral medication that binds and adsorbs ingested toxins in the gastrointestinal tract for treatment of some poisonings and medication overdoses. charcoal is ground into a very fine powder that provides the greatest possible surface area for binding medications that have been taken by mouth; it is carried on the EMS unit
adsorption
the process of binding or sticking to a surface
aspirin
acetylsalicyclic acid, or ASA. a medication that is an antipyretic (reduces fever), analgesic (reduces pain), anti-inflammatory (reduces inflammation), and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation (clumping)
contraindications
conditions that make a particular medication or treatment inappropriate, for example, a condition in which a medication should not be given because it would not help or may actually harm a patient
dose
the amount of medication given on the basis of the patient's size and shape
epinephrine
a medication that increases heart rate and blood pressure but also eases breathing problems by decreasing muscle tone of the bronchiole tree; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication
gel
a semi-liquid substance that is administered orally in capsule form or through plastic tubes
generic name
the original chemical name of a medication (in contrast with one of its "trade names"); the name is not capitalized
hypoglycemia
an abnormally low blood glucose level
indications
the therapeutic uses for a specific medication
inhalation
breathing into the lungs; a medication delivery route
intramuscular (IM) injection
an injection into a muscle; a medication delivery route
intraosseous (IO)
into the bone; a medication delivery route
intravenous (IV) injection
an injection directly into a vein; a medication delivery route
metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
a miniature spray canister through which droplets or particles of medication may be inhaled
nitroglycerin
a medication that increases cardiac perfusion by causing arteries to dilate; you may be allowed to help the patient self-administer the medication
oral
by mouth; a medication delivery route
oral glucose
a simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream; it is carried on the EMS unit
over-the-counter (OTC) medications
medications that may be purchased directly by a patient without a prescription
oxygen
a gas that all cells need for metabolism; the heart and brain, especially, cannot function without oxygen
per os (PO)
through the mouth; a medication delivery route; same as oral
per rectum (PR)
through the rectum; a medication delivery route
pharmacology
the study of properties and effects of medications
polypharmacy
the use of multiple medications on a regular basis
prescription medications
medications that are distributed to patients only by pharmacists according to a physician's order
side effects
any effects of a medication other than the desired ones
solution
a liquid mixture that cannot be separated by filtering or allowing the mixture to stand
subcutaneous (SC) injection
injection into the tissue between the skin and muscle; a medication delivery route
sublingual (SL)
under the tongue; a medication delivery route
suspension
a mixture of ground particles that are distributed evenly throughout a liquid but do not dissolve
topical medications
lotions, creams, and ointments that are applied to the surface of the skin and affect only that area; a medication delivery route
trade name
the brand name that a manufacturer gives a medication; the name is capitalized
transcutaneous
through the skin; a medication delivery route
transdermal medications
medications that are designed to be absorbed through the skin (transcutaneously)