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VMED 5127 Dr. Al Suprarenal and Pineal Gland
Terms in this set (32)
Suprarenal/Adrenal Gland: Development of the:
- Chromaffin cels?
- Cortex= Mesoderm
- Medulla= Ectoderm (from neural crest cells)
- Medullary Chromaffin cells= derived from sympathetic ganglion (which is derived from neural crest cells)
What is Congenitial Adrenal Hyperplasia?
An abnormal increase in the cells of the suprarenal (adrenal gland) cortex.
Resulting in excessive androgen production during the fetal period.
In females this causes masculization of the external genitalia and enlargement of the clitoris.
Gross anatomy of adrenal gland?
What are the differences between the adrenal gland and a lymph node?
Where are the adrenal glands located?
Simply describe the adrenal glands covering and parenchyma.
- Above the kidneys
- Embedded in adipose tissue
- Covered by a fibrous capsule
- Parenchyma divided into:
1. Cortex (outer layer, mesodermal origin, 80-90% of the organ)
2. Medulla (inner layer, ectodermal origin, from neural crest cells)
What are the zones of the adrenal cortex?
- The adrenal cortex developed from mesoderm and is subdivided into 3 zones:
1) Outer cortex: (Parenchyma forms irregular clusters of glomeruli)
Zona Glomerulosa (ruminant and human)
Zona Arcuata (horses and carnivores)
2) Middle cortex: (Parenchyma forms radially oriented cords of fascicles)
3) Inner cortex: (Parenchyma forms reticulated cords)
Histology of the adrenal glands?
Outer Cortex (Zona arcuata or glomerulosa):
- Columnar cells arranged in cords and clusters
- Cytoplasm light, acidophilic, nuclei stain dark
- Contains lipid droplets
Simply, what is the pineal gland?
- It's a small endocrine gland in the brain that develops as an out pouching of the diencephalon.
- Also called "Epiphysis"
- It is a solid, cone shaped gland
- It is responsive to light and dark periods
What hormone is released by the pineal gland?
- Serotonin during the day
- Melotonin at night
Be able to identify histologically:
- Adrenal gland
- Pineal gland
Look at Shasta dropbox powerpoint
What 2 groups of hormones do the adrenal glands release?
What 3 arteries supply each adrenal gland?
1. Caudal phrenic arteries
3. Renal arteries
The cortical capillaries in the adrenal glands are ---?
The circulation in the medulla of the adrenal glands forms what 3 things?
1. Medullary sinusoids
2. Venous sinuses
3. Medullary vein
What are the 3 cortical hormones of the adrenal gland?
They are all synthesized from -----, which makes them ---- hormones.
- They are all made from blood cholesterol, which makes them steroid hormones.
Whats the difference between the Zona Glomerulosa and the Zona Arcuata in the adrenal cortex?
Both are types of the outer cortex.
- In ruminants and humans
- Apical part of the cortex is rounded
- In horses and carnivores
- Apical part of the cortex arches
Simply, what are the zones of the adrenal cortex (listed)? And where is the Zona Intermedia?
- Outer cortex: Zona Glomerulosa or Zonal Acruata
- Middle cortex: Zona Fasciculata
- Inner Cortex: Zona Reticularis
The "zona intermedia" is in between the zone glomerulosa and fasciculata and provides stem cells to both of those zones.
Whats the histology of the zone fasciculata of the adrenal gland?
This is the middle cortex of the adrenal gland
- Largest zone
- Cells are spherical or polyhedral
- 1-2 layers thick of columns or cords with sinusoidal capillaries in between the cell columns
- Cytoplasm is acidophilic (stains red-orange)
- Cytoplasm is vacuolated and (due to the loss of the lipid droplets that were in the outer cortex) the cells are now known as "spongiocytes"
- Glucocorticoids here
Glucocorticoids control the metabolism of (3 things). Where can glucocorticoids be found?
- Found in the middle cortex (Zona Fasciculata) of the adrenal gland.
Whats the histology of the zone reticuaris of the adrenal gland?
This is the innermost layer of the cortex of the adrenal gland.
Zona reticularis cells:
- Dark stained acidophilic cytoplasm
- Arranged in cords
- Bordered by large sinusoids
- Are small spongiocytes with pyknotic nuclei (shrinking nucleus and condensed solid chromatin)- indicative of apoptosis
- Release androgens (steroid hormone)
The cortex secretes 3 classes of steroid hormones.
3. Weak Androgens
- Secreted from where?
- Stimulates the absorption of ----, by (3 ways)
- Main target cells of this hormone?
- Stimulates ----, by (2 ways)
- Secreted by the zone glomerulosa
- Stimulates the absorption of sodium by:
1. Gastric mucosa
2. Salivary glands
3. Sweat glands
- Main target cells are cells of the kidneys distal convoluted tubules
- Stimulates water balance by:
1. Absorbing sodium
2. Excreting potassium
- Stimulate water balance by absorbing sodium (in gastric mucosa, sweat glands and salivary glands) and excreting potassium.
- Main target cells are the kidneys distal convoluted tubules cells
- Secreted by the zone glomerulosa
- Secreted by?
- What does it do?
- Secreted by the zone fasciculata
- Released in response to stress and to decrease body inflammation.
- When they are at an above normal level, glucocorticoids inhibit macrophage and leukocyte infiltration at inflammation sites.
- This suppresses the immune response by reducing the circulating lymphocytes.
- Secreted by?
- Secreted by the zone reticular is
- Weak, masculinizes sex hormones
- In the medulla
- Have dense granules that contain either epinephrine or norepinephrine
- Present in granules of chromatin cells
- It binds epinephrine and norepinephrine
Where does the pineal gland (epiphysis) develop from?
- The pineal gland (endocrine gland in the brain) develops as a diverticulum from the roof of the diencephalon.
- The cells of the diencephalon wall proliferate to form the solid, cone shaped pineal gland.
Pineal Gland: Description of its structure.
- Projects from the roof of the diencephalon
- Cone shaped
- Has a recess of the 3rd ventricle into its stalk
- It is covered by a pia mater capsule.
- A capsular septa divides the pineal gland into incomplete lobules.
The parenchyma of the pineal gland is composed of what 3 cell types?
2. Astrocyte-like gliocytes
3. Interstitial cells
What are pinealocytes? Where are they found? What do they secrete and when?
- They are found in the parenchyma of the pineal gland.
- Responsible for secreting serotonin (day) and melatonin (night)
- Its secretions are linked to visual signals to relay information about the environment light.
- Have a basophilic cytoplasm
- Single, spherical nucleus
Interstitial cells in the pineal gland
- They are astrocyte-like neuroglia cells
- Scattered between the pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the pineal gland.
- Abundant in the pineal stalk that leads to the diencephalon.
- Dark stained, elongated nuclei
What is brain sand? Where is it found?
- In the parenchyma of the pineal gland
- There are concentric deposits of calcium phosphates and carbonates.
- Radiology landmark
- Appear in early childhood and increase in size throughout life. The function of this brain sand is unclear.
- Increases during short photoperiods.
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