The three major types of temperament are easy, slow-to-warm-up and difficult. Easy temperament is characterized by regular bodily functions, positive approach to new situations, adaptability, positive mood and non-intense reaction to stimuli. children who are shy or "slow to warm up," meaning they are uneasy or cautious in new situations or with unfamiliar people. As babies, they didn't like being held by just anyone; they wanted to be cuddled by only a few special, trusted people. Difficult temperament is characterized by irregular bodily functions, withdrawal from new situations, slow adaptability, negative mood, and intense reaction. 1. Trust vs. mistrust is the first stage in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage begins at birth continues to approximately 18 months of age. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.
If these needs are not consistently met, mistrust, suspicion, and anxiety may develop.
2. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world.
3. Initiative versus guilt is the third stage. Children assert themselves more frequently through directing play and other social interaction.
4. Erikson's fourth psychosocial crisis, involving industry (competence) vs. Inferiority occurs during childhood between the ages of five and twelve. Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their own.
5. Identity vs. role confusion, and it occurs during adolescence, from about 12-18 years. During this stage, adolescents search for a sense of self and personal identity, through an intense exploration of personal values, beliefs, and goals.
6. Intimacy versus isolation is the sixth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage takes place during young adulthood between the ages of approximately 18 to 40 yrs. During this stage, the major conflict centers on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people.
7. Generativity versus stagnation is the seventh of eight stages of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage takes place during during middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65 yrs).
8. Ego integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development. This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and can develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.
2nd EditionDavid G Myers
Spencer A. Rathus
3rd EditionDavid G Myers
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins