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hemoglobin( HGB )

male 14-18 g/dl
female 12-16 g/dl

hematocrit (Hct)

male 40-54%
female 37-47%


4,500- 11,000/mm^3


male 4.5-6.2 million/mm^3
female 4-5.5 million/mm^3

Prothrombin time (PT)

11-16 seconds
light blue tube

Sed rate

nonspecific test
elevated with any disease or infection

yellow tubes

blood cultures

light blue

sodium citrate
PT - coagulation studies
whole blood

red tube

blood chemistries
serum studies
clotted blood

red tt tube

blood chemistries
serum studies
clotted blood
gel seperater

green tube

blood gases, ph studies
whole blood

lavender tube

hamatology studies, cbc, hgb, Hct
whole blood

grey tube

sodium fluoride, potassium oxalate
glucose studies
whole blood

for serum:

draw blood with a red or tt tube. Draw enough blood( 2.5 x how much serum you need) then let it sit for 30-45 min to clot. Then centrifuge it for 10-15 min. the serum(plasma with no fibrogin, glucose, sodium, antibodies, hormones) will be on top layer, clotted blood will be on bottom layer

for plasma

draw blood from lavender, green, grey, light blue tube. Invert each tube 8-10 after draw. Then centrifuge it for 10-15 min. Get 3 layers, plasma (proteins, globulans, electrolights fibrogin), buffy coat (WBC and platelets), packed RBC.


straw colored portion of blood
transports substances
92% water
carries plasma proteins, globulins, electrolytes, fibrinogen


plasma that contains no fibrinogin
contains dissolved substances, glucose, sodium, antibodies, hormones


fight infection

types of WBC

neutrophils, lymphitocytes, monocytes, eosoniphils, basophils


most numerous, increase with acute infection, immature cells are called bands.


smallest WBC, involved with immune system, increase with viral infection, making antibodies


largest WBC


increase with allergic conditions(allergies)and parasitic infection


least numerous of WBC


formed in bone marrow of flat bones and ends of long bones. (ribs, sternum, skull, pelvic bones, end of arms and leg bones)

no nucleus in mature cell

does RBC have a nucleus

for greater surface area to pick up oxygen

why is RBC shaped like a disc with middle concaved (bi concave)


oxygen combined with hemoglobin

120 days and no

how long do RBC live and do they replicate

hemoglobin (heme protein makes it red)

where does blood get it's red color


too many WBC


what measures the % of packed blood cells

differential WBC

the blood smear that looks at all the WBC


another name for thrombocytes

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