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Chapter 57 - Practice Set
Terms in this set (36)
Every spring, deciduous trees produce new leaves. Every autumn, the leaves fall from the trees and are eaten by arthropods, worms, and other organisms. The energy contained in these fallen leaves is part of the trees' _______ primary productivity, and the organisms that feed on the fallen leaves are acting as _______.
Gopher tortoises are native to the southeastern United States. What characteristic of gopher tortoises would best support the claim that they act as a keystone species in their communities?
Over 300 animal species live in the deep burrows dug by the tortoises, including several species that live nowhere else.
Which of the following statements about the relationship between species richness and productivity in ecological communities is true? Species richness is...
- usually highest in the most productive communities
- usually highest in the least productive communities
- frequently highest at an intermediate level of productivity
- frequently lowest at an intermediate level of productivity
- not correlated with productivity
Species richness is frequently highest at an intermediate level of productivity.
Primary producers receive their energy _______.
from the sun
Which of the following is not a feature of heterotrophic succession? The major photosynthesizers are algae, energy resources are greatest in the early stages, a climax community is lacking, biomass decreases over time, or species diversity is greater in the early stages.
The major photosynthesizers are algae
A plant in the dark uses 0.02 ml of O2 per minute. The same plant in sunlight releases 0.14 ml of O2 per minute. Its rate of gross primary production would be approximately _______ ml of O2 per minute.
Consider a food chain in which hawk eats snake eats frog eats insect eats plant. The trophic level with the greatest amount of energy is the level containing the _______.
Which of the following events is not followed by primary succession? A glacier recedes, a volcano erupts, a fire destroys a forest, or a hurricane creates a bare-sand beach.
a fire destroys a forest
Which of the following facts is least relevant to the role of fig trees as a keystone species in rainforests? Fig tree flowers are pollinated by wasp species, fig trees produce fruit at times of the year when other fruit is scarce, dozens of mammal and bird species eat figs, many predators feed on fig-eating mammals and birds, or fig tree trunks provide housing for many insect, rodent, and bird species.
fig tree flowers are pollinated by wasp species
Pyramid diagrams of energy and biomass distribution for forests and for grasslands differ because _______.
wood presents more nutritional challenges to herbivores than grasses do
Which of the following represents primary succession? The development of an aquatic community in a newly excavated farm pond, eventually followed by the filling in of the pond with sediment and its conversion to a forest, the development of a terrestrial community on lava produced by a volcanic eruption, the gradual establishment of a forest following a fire that destroyed the previous community, or the invasion of weeds followed by shrubs and trees on an abandoned farm field.
the development of an aquatic community in a newly excavated farm pond, eventually followed by the filling in of the pond with sediment and its conversion to a forest, and the development of a terrestrial community on lava produced by a volcanic eruption
Lawn A contains 90 percent grass, with five species of weeds comprising the other 10 percent of the lawn (2 percent per weed species). Lawn B contains 75 percent grass, with the same five species of weeds comprising the other 25 percent of the lawn (5 percent per weed species). When compared to lawn A, lawn B has _______ species richness, _______ species evenness, and _______ overall diversity.
the same; greater; greater
What stages of ecological succession occurring on glacial moraines occur in Alaska in chronological sequence, from earliest to latest?
Arrival of bacteria, fungi, and photosynthetic microorganisms; arrival of lichens; arrival of willows and alders; increase in soil nitrogen; arrival of conifers
In their study, Tilman and colleagues found that higher species richness increased the stability of _______ in the plots, but not the stability of their _______ composition.
The gradual process of environmental change and species replacement is called _______.
A trophic level consists of those organisms _______.
whose energy has passed through the same number of steps to reach them
Which of the following statements about keystone species is true? They are very abundant, their removal has a great effect on community structure, they practice herbivory, they have regular dispersion patterns, or they have clumped dispersion patterns.
Their removal has a great effect on community structure.
Consider a food chain in which hawks eat snakes eat frogs eat insects eat plants. If the removal of hawks from this food chain triggered a trophic cascade, what would be the effects, if any, on the population sizes of snakes and frogs?
snakes increase, frogs decrease
A group of species that coexist and interact within a defined area comprises a(n) _______.
If the net primary productivity of a community is 2,000 kcal/m2/yr, what would be the best estimate of the productivity (in kcal/m2/yr) of the secondary consumers in that community?
The theory of island biogeography _______.
predicts that the equilibrium number of species on an island is a balance between the rate of immigration of new species and the rate of extinction of resident species
The ecological community of a pond comprises _______.
all the species living in the pond and the abiotic environment (water, sunlight, etc.) that supports them
In island biogeography theory, increasing an island's distance from a mainland will _______ the immigration rate to the island and _______ the extinction rate on the island.
lower; not affect
Net primary production is _______.
the total amount of primary producer biomass available for consumption by heterotrophs
Organisms that are most likely to tolerate harsh abiotic conditions are found during _______.
early primary succession
An ecological community is _______.
a group of species that coexist and interact within a defined area
Consider a food chain in which hawk eats snake eats frog eats insect eats plant. How many members of this chain are heterotrophs?
Which of the following is not an example of succession? A pond changing to a marsh, an old growth forest maintaining its diversity, shrubs filling in a forest gap, the recolonization of Mount St. Helens after its eruption, or an abandoned farm field becoming a meadow.
an old growth forest maintaining its diversity
Early stages of succession are characterized by _______.
species that are good dispersers, species with high rates of reproduction, simple food webs, and nutrients that are available primarly from detritus and abiotic sources
In 1988, Yellowstone National Park experienced fires affecting over 36 percent of its area. Where the fires burned the hottest, all the vegetation, including the forest trees, was killed, where the fires burned less severly, the forest trees survived the fire and only the smaller plants were killed. What would be the best prediction for succession following the fires?
Secondary succession would occur in all burned areas
Which of the following is not a hypothesis designed to explain the latitudinal gradients in diversity? Predation hypothesis, spatial heterogeneity hypothesis, specialization hypothesis, temperature hypothesis, or time hypothesis.
In comparison with temperate regions at higher latitudes, tropical communities show greater species richness. What is a hypothesis that has been proposed to explain this difference?
Tropical regions have had more time to diversify under stable climatic conditions, tropical regions have more habitat types, higher levels of interspecific competition in the tropics have led to narrower niches and hence a greater number of more specialized species, and higher predation intensity in the tropics prevents interspecific competition among prey species and thus allows rare species to persist.
In which of the following ecosystems would you expect to observe the lowest biomass of primary consumers relative to the biomass of the primary producers? Tropical rainforest, temperate grassland, freshwater lake, or open ocean.
Primary succession proceeds more rapidly than secondary succession. True or False.
Species whose influences on ecosystems are greater than would be expected based on their abundance are called _______.
Removal of a keystone species from a community tends to _______ species richness and _______ the complexity of interactions among trophic levels.
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