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Perms & Relaxers Review
From Pivot Point Fundamentals Book 111 Perm & Relax Glossary/Index
Terms in this set (80)
Generally processed with heat, method of perming using thioglycolic derivative called glyceryl monothioglycolate without ammonia; a more gentle method.
Processed without heat, softens and swells the hair fiber; formulated with thioglycolic acid or its derivatives and ammonia.
pH range of 6.9-7.2
pH range of 8.0-9.5
Sequential repetition; two or more design elements in a repeating pattern; in perm design, alternating rod diameters or rod shapes create a mix of textures.
Ingredient found in alkaline waves; shortens the processing time.
Chemical reducing agent that causes the hair to soften and swell.
pH range of 8.5-9.5
Ammonium Thioglycolate Relaxer
Adding texture anywhere along the strand except at the base; end perming is an example.
Barrier Cream (Base Cream)
Applied to hairline and ears to protect the skin before applying perm or thio relaxer: also applied to scalp before the application of a sodium hydroxide relaxer.
Area between straight or curved partings within the shape; also the area between two partings for an individual perm rod.
Size of the base in relation to the diameter of the tool, and the position of the tool in relation to the base.
Adding texture only to the part of the hair strand closest to the scalp; ideal for lift and support but not end curl.
Determined by the length and diameter of tool used; base size (width) is measured according to the diameter of the tool/roller, which is the outside measurement across the end of the tool/roller.
Removal of excess water before the neutralizing solution is applied; prevents a weak curl that relaxes prematurely or has adverse effects on the ability of the neutralizer to work when relaxing the hair.
End-paper wrapping technique that uses one end paper folded in half horizontally; used to control sections of hair when a shorter tool length is selected or to wrap sections of very short hair.
Machineless method of perming hair; the hair is wrapped on rods while a waving lotion (thioglycolic acid or its derivatives) processes the hair without heat.
Concave Perm Rod
Common perm tool that is narrower in diameter in the center and wider in the diameter at the ends; produces a smaller, tighter curl in the center.
Variety of desirable opposites that enhance and define form and dimension. In perm, differences created by positioning the texture only in selected areas of the design or along a portion of the hair strand.
Method of wrapping hair around a perm tool in which the hair is wrapped from the ends up to the scalp; also called overlap.
Product that helps new curl configurations retain their shape and provides moisture; applied frequently after every shampoo following a curl reformation service.
A mild creamy form of ammonium thioglycolate that helps hair assume new shape of perm rod during a curl reformation service; also called perm solution.
A technique used to loosen or relax tightly curled hair patterns by approximately 50% of their natural shape; also known as a chemical blowout.
Reduces peptide bonds so hair can relax and become straight; thio-based product used during a curl reformation service.
Chemical service designed to change tightly curled hair to curly or wavy hair; the hair is first relaxed to reduce the curl pattern and then permed to create a new curl pattern; also known as soft curls, reformation curls or a double-process perm service.
End paper wrapping technique that incorporates several end papers; cushions and supports fragile hair and controls shorter lengths within the hair section.
Describes the amount of hair follicles per square inch on the scalp and its usually referred to as light, medium or heavy (thin, medium or thick). Hair density does not always correspond to hair texture.
Process of making choices between design alternatives based on client communication and anatomy, as well as hair texture, density, porosity, and length.
Major components of an art form. In hair design, they are form, texture and color.
Arrangement patterns used in design. They include repetition, alteration, progression and contrast. in perm design, they may be applied to texture within zones, along the strand or throughout the entire composition.
Direction the hair is combed or dispersed over the curve of the head; prepares the hair to be sectioned and then wrapped.
Important side bond containing sulfur; directly affected by perming and relaxing.
End paper wrapping technique that incorporates two end papers-one on the top and one on the bottom; also known as double-flat technique and is considered a protective technique for color-treated and fragile hair.
Ability of hair to stretch and return to its original shape without breaking.
Porous paper used to control the hair ends and keep hair smoothly wrapped around the perm tool.
Positions permed texture away from the base or at the ends of the hair strand only.
Acid perm used to speed up the processing time; heat is added to cause the pH to rise gradually. Example: placing a plastic cap on the client and then under a pre-heated dryer.
Self-timing and self-heating; uses an additive that creates heat through a chemical reaction mixed with perm solution; ranges from acidic to alkaline.
Thioglycolic derivative; found in acid waves.
Base control positions in which the tool sits directly on its lower parting. The result is a lifted base. This most commonly used base control perming avoids splitting between rods.
Perm that uses a computer to digitally control the temperature of each perm rod, giving the stylist a greater degree of control over the whole perming process; often referred to as a "digital perm."
Perm that has cystemine hydrochloride as its reducing agent; available for people who may have an allergic reaction to thioglycolic acid, which is found in both alkaline and acid perms.
Product used in perming that fixes, locks in, restores bonds to make new shape of hair permanent; acid-balanced neutralizing shampoo or stabilizer product used in a relaxer service to lock hair in a straighter shape.
Step in the perm or relaxer process that locks hair into its new shape while lowering the pH of the hair.
Product that contains a derivative of sodium hydroxide or bisulfate; contains calcium, potassium, guanidine or lithium hydroxide as the active ingredient.
Product used to close the cuticle after alkaline chemical services.
Tool or curl sits below the bottom parting of the base, creating minimum base strength and the least volume or lift.
Tool or curl is centered between the top and bottom partings of the base; results in most volume and strongest base strength; full base.
Involves adding texture to areas such as the fringe. crown and nape; also called zonal perm.
Relaxer applied only to selected areas of the head; used mainly when the nape area and sides are closely tapered or when the perimeter hairline is frizzy; also called a zonal relaxer.
Chemical texture service that involves the process of using physical and chemical actions to permanently change the texture of hair, adding curly or wavy texture.
Product that softens the protein structure and allows the disulfide bonds to shift, assuming the shape of the tool.
Potential hydrogen; unit of measurement that indicates whether a substance is acidic, alkaline or neutral.
Hold perm rods in position when placed under perm rod band, avoid band pressure on hair and provide extra security during or after wrapping so rods will not move during chemical phase.
Refers to the ability of the hair to absorb moisture, liquids or chemicals.
Preliminary Test Curl
The process used to determine processing time and curl size prior to a perm.
Gradual change that occurs in a ascending or descending scale; in perms, rod diameters used create a larger-to-small or small-to-large texture pattern.
Consists primarily of rectangular sections subdivided into rectangular bases; most basic perm pattern.
Performed by pressing the back of the comb against the scalp area to determine the degree of relaxation; also known as the comb test.
Chemical product used to soften the disulfide bonds in hair straightening procedure.
Process of loosening or reducing of the hair's existing texture as when straightening curly or tightly curled hair.
Identical in nature throughout; a unit identical in all ways except position; in texture services the same degree of curl or straightness is achieved throughout.
Retouch Curl Reformation
Curl reformation service is performed on the new growth only-to match the previously curl reformed hair.
Uses the same procedure as a virgin application, except that the product is applied only to the new growth area at the scalp.
Dividing the hair into workable areas for the purpose of control-prior to wrapping or applying relaxer product.
Advanced version of the double-paper technique; one paper is used to control the ends of the hair by positioning the paper on top of the strand and sliding it down partially past the ends.
Action that redistributes the relaxer on the hair strand and helps relax and reform the bonds to a straighter position.
Strong alkaline products that have a pH of 11.5-14 and designed to straighten curly, tightly curled and resistant hair, also known as lye relaxers.
Spiral Wrapping Technique
A method of wrapping the hair around a perm tool base-to-ends or ends-to-base; results in a corkscrew shaped curl.
Straight Perm Rods
Perm tool used to produce curls or waves that are uniform throughout the hair strands.
The ease or difficulty with which a product can penetrate the cuticle layer of the hair.
Test that shows how well the bonds are softening and shifting to their new shape to determine complete processing of a perm; positive test shows an S-shape or pattern.
The degree of coarseness or fineness in the hair fiber is referred to as texture; often categorized as either fine, medium or coarse.
Advanced relaxer service that results in straight hair by using both chemical s and heat to restructure the bonds in the hair.
Main ingredient found in alkaline perms.
Tool or curl sits in the lower portion of the base, but not on or below the parting.
Virgin Curl Reformation
Service used on natural, untreated or virgin hair to reform tightly curled texture into a looser curl or wave pattern.
Chemical relaxer applied to untreated or virgin hair; first applied to the most resistant area - 1/4" (.6 cm) to 1/2" (1.25 cm) away from the scalp-and up to the porous ends.
Zigzag base used for blending between directional or texture changes; used often to blend into areas that are left natural.
Zonal Pattern (Perm)
Added texture within specific areas; perm service that positions to emphasize specific areas of sculpture; add subtle support or create a bold statement; also called partial perm.
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