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RADT 1091 (test 1)
Terms in this set (97)
what are the 3 divisions of the chest?
respiratory, bony thorax, mediastinum
the _______________ is the protective framework of the chest (provides support and structure), the _______________ contains the lungs and the airways, and the ____________ is the space between the lungs
bony thorax, respiratory system, mediastinum
the ______________ is made up of the sternum, the clavicles/collarbones, scapulae/shoulder blades, 12 pair of ribs, and 12 thoracic vertebrae
the _______________ 's purpose is the exchange of gaseous substances between air and blood
what are the 4 divisions of the respiratory system ?
pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
movement in the __________ allows pressure change
the ____________, consisting of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx is about 5" long and is where food and air pass through.
the ___________ is what anchors/supports the larynx, while the ____________ cartilage is what makes up the inferior and posterior wall of the larynx (right under the adams apple - between C5 & above C6)
the _________________ (level of C5) is also referred to as the adam's apple
the larynx consists of the ________ bone, the ___________ prominence, ___________ cartilage, and __________ cartilage
hyoid, laryngeal, thryoid, cricoid
the _____________ helps one not choke (blocks food and water)
the _________ connects the larynx to the bronchi.
air shows up as ____________ on an x-ray
the ____________ is an important landmark in imaging that is part of the bronchi and divides into 2 sections (right and left). the right is wider and more vertical, so things tend to get lodged here (most inferior)
__________ do a lot of gas exchange (so much that would cover tennis court). if these start to stick together and do not get proper gas exchange it shows that the patient was possibly a smoker or a premature baby and do not have enough surfactant to avoid it from sticking together
the right bronchi divides into _____ branches, while the left bronchi divides into ____ branches
each lung is double-walled including the ____________ pleura and the __________ pleura. if these two linings rub together, it causes friction
pulmonary/visceral (inner) and parietal (outer)
_____________ refers to air in the pleural cavity, __________ refers to blood in the pleural cavity, and ___________ is inflammation in the membrane
pneumothroax, hemothroax, pleurisy
the top of the lungs is referred to as the _________ and the bottom is referred to as the ___________
the ______________ is the medial portion of the throacic cavity between the lungs
the ______________ includes the trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, and the heart and great vessels
___________ detox blood/return blood to the heart, while __________ oxygenate blood (hold the shape because they have an elastic feel to them)/take blood away from the heart
the ___________ aorta and __________ aorta are the two largest arteries, while the ____________ and __________ vena cava are our biggest veins
super and inferior
the pharynx is a common passageway for both food and respiration
TorF-the left bronchus is smaller in diameter than the right but is approximately twice as long
the outermost layer of the pleura is referred to as the __________ pleura
Which of the following is NOT a mediastinal structure?
A. Thymus gland
what are percentages of these body habitus?
hypersthenic = 5% (overweight)
sthenic = 50% (medium size)
hyposthenic = 35% (skinny)
asthenic = 10% (extra skinny)
if the patient breathes properly during imaging, we should be able to count at least ______ posterior ribs (ribs move with breath)
before shooting an image, the rad tech should make sure that the patient has removed all ___________ objects including clothing, pick up hair, jewlery, bras, leads/etc
radiation protection includes limited repeat exposures, collimation, gonadal shielding, and backscatter protection which all reduce patient __________ (ALARA=as low as reasonably possible)
a __________ chest position allows the diaphragm to move farther down, demonstrates air-fluid levels, and prevents engorgement of pulmonary vessels
the crtieria for a chest x-ray is what?
no rotation, chin up, and minimize breast shadows
for a lateral chest x-ray, the most common position is the ________ lateral position because it reduces the magnification of the heart (most repeated bc tricky to get without rotation)
what is the criteria for a lateral chest x-ray?
no rotation, arms raised high,
for a PA chest x-ray, we base off of the _______ and measuring 7/8 inches by placing the thumb on here, spreading to the pinky, and placing cross-hair right beneath. for an AP chest, we measure about _______ inches below the jugular notch with our hand (pointer finger to pinky)
C7 , 3-4
collimation borders above apex of lungs and below costophrenic angles should be ___________ (mostly pediatric patients will collimate - not for big patients bc need to not clip or skinnier patients - can collimate up and down but not side to side)
How many posterior ribs should be seen above the diaphragm for a well-inspired PA chest projection?
What is the recommended kVp range for adult chest Image y?
110 to 125 kVp
What type of immobilization technique should be used for a chest study in a young pediatric patient?
the criteria for a PA chest is that?
the central ray should be at T7, the entire lungs should be included, no rotation, scapulae removed from lungs, full inspiration, equal collimation top & bottom, no motion, exposure factors
the criteria for lateral chest?
CR to T7 (lower about 1 in from PA), entire lungs included, no rotation, chin & arms elevated, correct collimation, no motion, exposure factors
for an AP semierect image, it is similar to a PA except that? (should look same as supine)
the heart may appear larger, air-fluid levels not well defined, & frequently not a complete inspiration (8-9 ribs visible)
two routine chest projections? some special chest projections are ?
PA and lateral
AP supine or semierect (mostly in ER), lateral decubitus, AP lordotic, Anterior oblique, posterior oblique
a left lateral decubitus image is done to specifically see air-fluid levels where air tends to collect on the __________ side better
for left lateral decubitus, the evaluation criteria is?
entire lungs included, no rotation, arms not superimposed over lungs, full inspiration, no motion, exposure factors
in a ____________ image, the clavilces are a shifted up to see beneath them
for any oblique image, one can use the floor tiles to position the patient at a ______ degree angle (always make sure correct side of thorax is elongated)
a ____________ x-ray would be performed if one had choked on something/swallowed toy/etc. the CR is placed at C6-7 and the patient puts arms behind back, pokes chest out, and does slow, deep inspiration like breathing through a straw. image is taken while patient is breathing (need to include mouth for child)
lateral upper airway
evalution criteria for lateral upper airway?
air-filled trachea and larynx, shoulders not superimposed over trachea, collimation evident, exposure factors
for an AP upper airway image, the C is at ____-_____
Which chest projection/position should be performed to demonstrate a pleural effusion in the right lung if the patient cannot stand?
right lateral decubitus
Which chest projection/position should be performed to demonstrate a pneumothorax in the left lung if the patient cannot stand?
left lateral deubitus
Which one of the following conditions is classified as a form of pneumoconiosis?
lowest level of the structural organization of the human body is the _____________ level
what are 4 basic types of tissue in the body
epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
list 10 systems of the human body
Skeletal, circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive, nervous, muscular, endocrine, integumentary
- the __________ system elimates solid waste from the body
- the _____________ system regulates fluid and electroltye balance and volume
- the ________ system maintains posture
- the ____________ system regulates body activities with electrical impulses
- the _____________ system regulates bodily activities through various hormones
- the ______________ system eliminates carbon dioxide from blood
- the ______________ system reproduces the organism
- the ________________system regulates body temperature
- the _____________ system supports and protects many soft tissues of the body
what body system is the largest organ system in the body and synthesizes vitamin d and other biochemicals?
how many bones in human skeleton?
which aspect of long bone is responsible for the production of RBC ? which for bone growth, repair, and nutrition?
medullary aspect, periosteum
at what age is epiphyseal fusion of the long bones complete?
____________ is the wider portion of a long bone in which bone growth in length occurs?
a _____________ is an image of patients anatomic parts taken by x-ray
the ____________ is the part of x-ray beam taht has the least divergence
- ____________ plane is the vertical plane that divides the body into equal right and left parts
- _____________ plane is the vertical plane that divides the body into equal anterior and posterior parts
- _____________ plane is the plane taken at right angles along any point of the longitudinal axis of the body
- midsagittal plane
the direction or path of the central ray
name of position where body is turned 90 degrees from AP or PA position
palm of hand?
lying on back facing upward?
lying in any position?
anterior half of foot? posterior?
dorum pedis, plantar
position when head is lower than feet
specific position that demonstrates the apices of lungs, without superimposition of clavicles
what is minimum amount of projections when joints are in prime interest are?
what is chest bony landmark?
C7 for PA projection (bump on back of neck)
jugular notch for AP projection
the ____________ sits posterior to the larynx and trachea
the _____________ is c-shaped because the esophagus needs room to expand when we swallow food/etc and these c-shaped rings are rigid to keep our airway open
central ray for PA chest?
central ray for AP chest?
in a chest x-ray, a ______ is necessary, except for small old ladies or small children (need for 10 cm or more) with a high kVp of ____ to _____ and _____ mA (so goes faster allowing for less movement)
grid, 110-125, high
for a chest x-ray, we use the __________ based upon the spine and sternum to see if the patient has rotated
a _________ __________ oblique and a __________ __________ oblique are two different projections that end up looking almost identical
a _________ __________ oblique and _________ __________ oblique also look the same
right anterior , left posterior
right posterior, left anterior
how many projections are needed for a hand with a nail stuck in it?
the heart is located at the level of ____-______ in the anterior chest
the thyroid gland is located at the level of ____-______
the right lung has _____ lobes
the right bronchus is ______ than the left and the angle of divergence of the left bronchus is ________ than that of the right bronchus
the ____________ is the shortest part of the small intestine
the _______________ is the double-walled tissue lining in the abdominal cavity, while the _________________ stabilizes and supports the small intestine
the greater omentum extends from the transverse colon to the greater __________ of the stomach
what division is the right colic/hepatic flexure found in?
right lateral lumbar
the iliac crest cooresponds to the _____-______ level and the inferior costal margin coorespondsto ______-______
for an AP erect abdomen, where do you center?
2" above iliac crest
at iliac crest
the top of the IR should line up with the _______ for abdominal images to include the diaphragm
______________ is an intestinal obstruction
what are the three images for an acute abdomen series?
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