angle strain (Baeyer strain)
the strain associated with compressing bond angles to smaller (or larger) angles
a conformation with a 180 degree dihedral angle between the largest groups. usually the lowest-energy conformation.
switching from one chair conformation to the next, with all the axial and equatorial positions reversed. the boat conformation is an intermediate for this interconversion.
structures that are related by rotations about single bonds. in most cases, conformations interconvert at room temperature, and so they are not true isomers
conformations of cyclohexanes:
1. chair-most stable
2. boat: less stable
3. twist boat- more stable version of twist boat (twist reduces torsional strain and steric strain)
1,3 diaxial interaction
the strong steric strain between two axial groups on cyclohexane carbons with one carbon between them.
the reaction of alkanes with halogens, in the presence of heat or light, to give products with halogen atoms substituted for hydrogen atoms.
a thin, volatile hydrocarbon with a boiling range between that of diesel fuel and that of gasoline.
an icelike substance consisting of individual methane molecules trapped inside cages of water molecules
angle strain (baeyer strain): bond angle compression or expansion
torsional strain: the strain associated with eclipsing of bonds in the ring.