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IB Sociocultural Level of Analysis terms
IB Psychology SL Terms for Sociocultural LOA
Terms in this set (44)
The norms and values that define a society.
Term refers to observations made of individual's behavior in an everyday life setting.
How people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world.
People making an attribution about behavior depending on whether they are performing it themselves or observing somebody else doing it.
Forces outside an individual's immediate control such as environmental conditions/external factors.
Something to do with personal (internal) factors
fundamental attribution error
The under estimations of situational influence (surroundings) and the over estimation of dispositional influence (personality).
When people take credit for their successes by attributing them to dispositional factors (internal), and dissociate themselves from their failures, attributing them to situational factors (external).
Explaining your successes in terms of situational factors.
social identity theory
Theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social indentity, and social comparison
Classification of people as members of different social groups. In-group or out-group
"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity.
"Them"—those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
When people evaluate their own actions, abilities, an beliefs by contrasting them with others in their in-group
A distorted, exaggerated, or oversimplified image applied to a category of people
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's perception.
social desirability effect
Some research on stereotyping and prejudice indicates a decrease in the frequency of such behaviors, it is difficult to know if this is truly the case, or whether it is simply "politically incorrect" to make such statements.
A set of rules based on socially or culturally shared beliefs of how an individual ought to behave.
social learning theory
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating (observational learning) and by being rewarded or punished.
Learning by watching models and imitating their behavior.
Ways in which others are influenced to comply with the demands or desires of others.
The social norms that we should treat others the way they treat us.
A request is made which will surely be turned down. Then a second request is made which asks less of someone. People are more likely to accept the second request because they feel that the person has already lowered the request in order to accommodate them.
referent social influence
Turner suggested that people are most likely to conform to the norms of the particular group we feel we belong to
Getting people to make a commitment to something small, with the hope of persuading them to agree to something larger.
Compliance technique involving getting someone to agree to a commitment first and then adding disagreeable specifics later.
The tendency to adjust one's thoughts, feelings, or behavior in ways that are in agreement with those of a particular individual or group.
The person or people that help a researcher to deceive the participants.
Group members having a unanimous opinion on an issue, and they do not seek out alternative or dissenting opinions. Often the group is blinded by optimism that their decision will be successful.
informational social influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality, in ambiguous situations
normative social influence
Behaviour that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.
An outsider's understanding of another culture., A research finding that appears to be universally true across cultures
Culture specific and involves understanding the culture from the perspective of members of that culture.
The perspectives of a culture based on values and cultural norms.
Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
Confucian work dynamism
Dimension of culture that refers to persistence,commitment, and organizational identity and loyalty; relabeled as long-term vs short-term orientation
The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members
The cognitive process whereby people categorized others.
An attitude; a judgement of an individual based on a set of characteristics that is attributed to him or her because of the group ti which he or she belongs.
A behavior; when a person is treated differently based on his or her membership of a group.
A tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the mean of individual members' initial positions, in the direction already favoured by that mean (Vaughan & Hogg, 2008).
Conformity in which a smaller number of individuals is able to influence the opinions or behaviours of the larger group.
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