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Fundamentals of Nursing

Therapeutic communication skills Chapter 44 Admission, transfer, and discharge Chapter 45 Vital signs Chapter 46 Data Collection in Client care Chapter 47 Body Mechanics and Positioning Chapter 48 Beds and bed making chapter 49 Personal Hygiene and Skin care chapter 50 Elimination Chapter 51 Bandages and Binders Chapter 53 Heat and cold applications Chapter 54 Client comfort and pain managment Chapter 55 Pre-Op and Post-OP Care chapter 56
STUDY
PLAY
alias
an assigned name under which certain clients are admitted to (and records kept in) a healthcare facility in order to maintain anonymity.
aphasia
an abnormal neurologic condition in which a person is unable to express oneself through speech or writing.
assertiveness
confidence without aggression or passivity, an important skill for a nurse to possess in interpersonal communication.
body language
impressions one conveys through body movements and posture, eye contact, and other non-verbal means.
closed-ended question
questions that can usually be answered by one word, such as "yes" or "no;" also called close-ended questions.
communication
giving, receiving, and interpreting information (maybe verbal or nonverbal).
eye contact
looking another person in the eye, as in "making eye contact."
interview
a goal-directed conversation in which one person seeks information from the other.
nonverbal communication
conveying information or messages without speaking or writing. Components include items such as therapeutic touch, gestures, body language, facial expression, and eye contact.
open-ended question
questions used in therapeutic communication and interviews that promote in-depth answers and encourage clients to talk about themselves and their concerns.
personal space
an invisible, mutually understood area or zone around a per-son that is considered inappropriate for strangers to violate (varies between cultures). If a person invades another's personal space (comes too close), it may cause discomfort. Much nursing care must occur within the client's personal space.
proxemics
the use of space in relationship to communication.
therapeutic communication
communication (usually verbal) with a client that is helpful and beneficial; creating a healing, curative, and safe milieu by using communication.
verbal communication
giving information, news, or messages by speaking or writing.
acuity
clearness; or a disorder's level of severity; minimum level or need for healthcare services that must be met for a client to be admitted to an acute care facility.
dehumanization
to make a person/client feel like an object, to remove one's dignity.
vital signs
measurements of temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure.
apical pulse
pulse normally heard at the heart's apex, which usually gives the most accurate assessment of pulse rate.
apical-radial pulse
reading done by measuring both the apical and radial pulses simultaneously, used when it is suspected that the heart is not effectively pumping blood.
apnea
cessation of breathing
auscultation
externally listening to sounds from within the body to determine abnormal conditions, as auscultation of blood pressure with a stethoscope
axillary
the underarms
bradycardia
abnormally slow heart; slow pulse
bradypnea
condition in which breaths are abnormally slow and fall below ten per minute.
carotid pulse
pulse felt on either side of the neck, over the carotid artery.
Celsius
temperature scale in which water boils at 100 degrees and freezes at zero (formerly centigrade). "Normal" oral body temperature is 37 degrees Celsius. Celsius scale most often used in health care facilities.
Normal range oral temperature
35.5-37.5 C (95.5-99.5 F)
Normal range respriatory rates adult Men
12-18
Normal range respriatory rates adult
16-20
Normal blood pressure parameters for adults
120/80
Normal pulse rate for adults
60-80 BPM ( beats per minute)
base of support
balance or stability provided by the feet and their positioning.
body mechanics
use of safe and efficient methods of moving and lifting.
center of gravity
the center of one's weight; half of one's body weight is below and half above, and half to the left and half to the right of the center of gravity. This concept is important in body mechanics.
circumduction
circular movement of a limb or the eye.
client reminder device
piece of equipment, most often a vest or a belt, used to ensure the safety of the client (ie, helping client to remain in a chair without falling); also called a client reminder device.
contracture
abnormal shortening of muscles with resultant deformity.
contralateral
the opposite side.
dangling
positioning of a client so that he or she is sitting on the edge of the bed with legs down and feet supported by a footstool or the floor. This is an exercise in preparation for sitting in a chair and/or walking.
eversion
turning inside out; turning outward
footdrop
contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar flexion of foot.
Fowler's position
examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the head elevated.
gait
manner or style of walking
gait belt
sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.
gravital plane
direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.
gurney
our-wheeled cart; also called gurney, wheeled stretcher. A litter scale is used to weigh clients who cannot stand.
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body.
inversion
turning inside out; reversing.
isometric
having the same length or dimensions, as isometric exercises(pushing against stable resistance);also called muscle setting.
lateral
side-lying
line of gravity
direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.
lithotomy
examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the feet in stirrups.
litter
same as gurney
logroll turn
method of turning a client that keeps the body in straight alignment, used for clients with injuries to the back and/or spinal cord.
orthopneic position
difficult breathing, relieved by sitting or standing erect; orthopneic position: sitting and leaning forward, to facilitate breathing.
paralysis
motion loss or impairment of sensation in a body part.
paraplegia
paralysis of the legs and sometimes the lower part of the body; a person with this condition is called a paraplegic.
pronation
turning the hand so that the palm faces downward or backward.
prone
positioning a client so that he or she is lying on the stomach
protective device
same as client reminder device
rotation
process of turning about an axis, as rotation of the hand.
Sims' position
examination position in which the client is lying on his or her left side with right knee flexed.
supine
lying on back
transfer belt
sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.
transfer board
board made of hard plastic used to move patients who are unable to stand from the side of the bed to a chair.
trochanter roll
padding placed onsides of legs and feet of a client in bed, to prevent abnormal outward rotation and related sequela.
bed cradle
a frame used to prevent bedclothes from touching all or part of a person's body.
closed bed
bed used when preparing a unit for a new client—an unoccupied bed
egg crate mattress
a foam pad, shaped like an egg carton, which is used on top of a regular bed mattress to provide comfort and to pre-vent pressure areas.
flotation mattress
mattress or pad filled with a gel-type material which supports the body in a way to pro-vide comfort and avoid creating pressure points, thereby helping to prevent skin breakdown.
footboard
vertical support at the foot of a bed, helps to prevent footdrop.
footdrop
contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the
floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar
flexion of the foot.
mitered (corners)
the type of beveled corners used when making a hospital bed.
occupied bed
bed holding a client that is unable to get up as a result of his or her condition or generalized weakness.
open bed
bed that allows linens to be turned down, making it easier for a person to get into or out of.
postoperative bed
bed prepared for a client who is returning from surgery or another procedure that requires transfer into the bed from a stretcher or wheelchair.
traction
exertion of a pulling force; an apparatus attached to the client to maintain stability of a joint or aligned fracture or to exert a pulling force elsewhere, as in the lower back, to relieve pressure.
trapeze
horizontal bar suspended above and attached to the bed, which is used to pull up to a sitting position or to lift the shoulders and hips off the bed.
unoccupied bed
bed that is empty at the time it is made up.
dental caries
The formation of cavities in the teeth by the action of bacteria; tooth decay.
friable
fagile; easily broken
halitosis
bad breath
nits
lice eggs
pediculosis
infested with lice
perineal care
bathing genitals and surrounding area
pyorrhea
copious discharge of pus
smegma
sebaceous gland secretion that may collect under foreskin of penis in an uncircumcised male.
sordes
foul, dark matter that collects around the teeth and lips in low grade fever
base of support
balance or stability provided by the feet and their positioning
body mechanics
use of safe and efficient methods of moving and lifting
center of gravity
the center of one's weight; half of one's body weight is below and half above, and half to the left and half to the right of the center of gravity. This concept is important in body mechanics.
circumduction
circular movement of a limb or the eye.
client reminder device
piece of equipment, most often a vest or a belt, used to ensure the safety of the client (ie, helping client to remain in a chair without falling); also called a client reminder device.
contracture
abnormal shortening of muscles with resultant deformity.
contralateral
the opposite side
dangling
positioning of a client so that he or she is sitting on the edge of the bed with legs down and feet supported by a footstool or the floor. This is an exercise in preparation for sitting in a chair and/or walking.
eversion
turning inside out; turning outward
footdrop
contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar flexion of foot.
Fowler's position
examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the head elevated.
gait
manner or style of walking
gait belt
sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.
gravital plane
direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.
gurney
our-wheeled cart; also called gurney, wheeled stretcher. A litter scale is used to weigh clients who cannot stand.
hemiplegia
paralysis on one side of the body.
inversion
turning inside out; reversing.
isometric
having the same length or dimensions, as isometric exercises(pushing against stable resistance);also called muscle setting.
lateral
side-lying
line of gravity
direction of gravitation pull; an imaginary vertical line through the top of the head, center of gravity, and base of support.
lithotomy
examination position in which the client is lying on his or her back with the feet in stirrups.
litter
same as gurney
logroll turn
method of turning a client that keeps the body in straight alignment, used for clients with injuries to the back and/or spinal cord.
orthopneic position
difficult breathing, relieved by sitting or standing erect; orthopneic position: sitting and leaning forward, to facilitate breathing.
paralysis
motion loss or impairment of sensation in a body part.
paraplegia
paralysis of the legs and sometimes the lower part of the body; a person with this condition is called a paraplegic.
pronation
turning the hand so that the palm faces downward or backward.
prone
positioning a client so that he or she is lying on the stomach.
protective device
same as client reminder device
rotation
process of turning about an axis, as rotation of the hand
Sims' position
examination position in which the client is lying on his or her left side with right knee flexed.
supine
lying on back
transfer belt
sturdy webbed belt used by the nurse to help provide support to the weak or unsteady person.
transfer board
board made of hard plastic used to move patients who are unable to stand from the side of the bed to a chair.
trochanter roll
padding placed onsides of legs and feet of a client in bed, to prevent abnormal outward rotation and related sequela.
bed cradle
a frame used to prevent bedclothes from touching all or part of a person's body.
closed bed
bed used when preparing a unit for a new client—an unoccupied bed
egg crate mattress
a foam pad, shaped like an egg carton, which is used on top of a regular bed mattress to provide comfort and to pre-vent pressure areas.
flotation mattress
mattress or pad filled with a gel-type material which supports the body in a way to pro-vide comfort and avoid creating pressure points, thereby helping to prevent skin breakdown.
footboard
vertical support at the foot of a bed, helps to prevent footdrop.
footdrop
contracture deformity that prevents the client from putting the heel on the
floor; results from improper positioning or anterior leg muscle paralysis; abnormal plantar
flexion of the foot.
mitered (corners)
the type of beveled corners used when making a hospital bed.
occupied bed
bed holding a client that is unable to get up as a result of his or her condition or generalized weakness.
open bed
bed that allows linens to be turned down, making it easier for a person to get into or out of.
postoperative bed
bed prepared for a client who is returning from surgery or another procedure that requires transfer into the bed from a stretcher or wheelchair.
traction
exertion of a pulling force; an apparatus attached to the client to maintain stability of a joint or aligned fracture or to exert a pulling force elsewhere, as in the lower back, to relieve pressure.
trapeze
horizontal bar suspended above and attached to the bed, which is used to pull up to a sitting position or to lift the shoulders and hips off the bed.
unoccupied bed
bed that is empty at the time it is made up.
dental caries
The formation of cavities in the teeth by the action of bacteria; tooth decay.
friable
fragile; easily broken
halitosis
bad breath
nits
lice eggs
pediculosis
infested with lice
perineal care
bathing genitals and surrounding area
pyorrhea
copious discharge of pus
smegma
sebaceous gland secretion that may collect under foreskin of penis in an uncircumcised male.
sordes
foul, dark matter that collects around the teeth and lips in low grade fever
abscess
collection of pus in a localized area
accommodation
adjustment, as the accommodation of the lens of the eye.
acuity
clearness; or a disorder's level of severity; minimum level or need for healthcare services that must be met for a client to be admitted to an acute care facility.
acute disease
disease or illness that develops suddenly and runs its course in days or weeks; illnesses that interfere with the continuum for a short period of time.
auscultation
externally listening to sounds from within the body to determine abnormal conditions, as auscultation of blood pressure with a stethoscope.
biopsy
removal of a sample of body tissue or fluid for diagnostic examination, usually microscopic; most often used to detect the presence of cancer.
chronic disease
a disease of long duration that generally manifests itself in an individual as recurring problems that tend to worsen in severity over time.
cognitive function
ability to think and reason.
complication
an unexpected event in a disease's course that delays a person's recovery.
conjunctivitis
commonly called pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva.
crackle
on auscultation, an abnormal discontinuous non-musical respiratory sound heard on inspiration; formerly called rale.
diplopia
double vision
dysphasia
difficulty in understanding or expressing language.
ecchymosis
bleeding into the tissue sunder the skin, leaving small bruise.
emaciation
a wasting away of the flesh, causing extreme leanness, starvation. (adj: emaciated).
endoscope
a tube-shaped, lighted device used to visualize or operate on hollow organs or within body cavities. Specialized endoscopes include the gastroscope, broncho-scope, and proctoscope. (Process of visualization using this tool is called endoscopy.)
erythema
skin redness produced by capillary congestion, as may follow a tuberculin test; bright red color associated with capillary dilation, can indicate fever or infection.
exudate
material that escapes from blood vessels and is deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces; usually contains protein substances.
fistula
an abnormal tube-like passage or channel, as an anal fistula or sinus tract.
granulation tissue
new tissue that forms when old destroyed tissue is sloughed off.
guaiac
tool examination for blood; also known as Hemoccult.
Hemoccult
a test for occult (hidden)blood in stool or body secretions.
hemorrhage
excessive bleeding(internal or external); escape of blood from non-intact blood vessels.
herniation
abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structure usually containing it, as an inguinal hernia or hiatal hernia; rupture; condition is called herniation.
Homans' sign
a test for thrombophlebitis in which pain occurs behind the knee when the foot is hyper flexed upward (dorsiflexion).
induration
a hardened place, a lump, as in the skin in a positive reaction to a tuberculin test.
infection
the invasion and multiplication of infective agents in body tissues with a resultant reaction(illness or injury) to their presence and/or their toxins.
inflammation
a condition resulting from irritation in any body part, marked by pain, heat, redness, and swelling.
inspection
careful, close, and detailed visual examination of a body part.
keloid
scar or scar tissue
kyphosis
an abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature of the spine, giving a hunchback appearance, commonly as a result of osteoporosis.
lordosis
an abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature of the spine, giving a hunchback appearance, commonly as a result of osteoporosis.
macule
a flat discolored spot on the skin (also, macule); a dense scar of the cornea that can be seen without optical aids.
malaise
feeling of illness; general bodily discomfort.
necrosis
tissue death
nodule
type of skin lesion appearing as a small knot or protuberance
observation
assessment tool that relies on the use of the five senses to discover objective information about the client.
pain
feeling of suffering, distress or agony, caused by stimulation of specialized nerve endings, a protective device of the body; a subjective sensation (reported by the client).
pallor
absence of skin pigment; paleness.
palpation
the act of feeling with the hand, placing the fingers on the skin to determine the condition of under-lying parts.
papule
small, solid, circumscribed skin elevation, less than 0.5-1.0 cm in diameter.
percussion
tapping a body part with short sharp blows to elicit sounds or vibrations that aid in diagnosis; often refers to the use of a percussion hammer to elicit a reflex.
primary disease
a disease that occurs independently, not related to another disease.
purulent
consisting of or secreting pus.
pustule
a small elevation of the skin filled with pus or lymph.
rhonchi
rattling sounds in the throat that resemble snoring (singular, rhonchus).
risk factor
a factor that increases a person's likelihood of developing a certain disease.
scoliosis
lateral curvature of the normally straight, vertical line of the spine, sometimes is S-shaped ("curvature of the spine").
secondary disease
a disease that directly results from or depends on another disease.
sequela
an illness or injury that follows as a direct result of a previous condition or event.
serosanguineous
fluid drainage com-posed of serum and blood.
serous
containing clear fluid; drainage made up of serum
sign
objective evidence of disease that another person can note (as opposed to symptom, which only the client can describe).
slough
to shed; to cast off (noun: slough—a mass of dead tissue).
strabismus
a deviation of the eye; squint. (Convergent strabismus is called cross-eye; divergent strabismus is called exotropia or walleye. Other types include cyclotropia ,esotropia, hypertropia, and hypotropia.)
striae
stretch marks
stridor
a shrill and harsh sound (usually refers to the inspiratory sound that occurs when the larynx is obstructed).
suppuration
formation or discharge of pus (adj: suppurative).
symptom
functional evidence of a disease or condition that a client perceives subjectively (as opposed to signs, which the examiner or others perceive).
thrombophlebitis
formation of a blood clot in a vein, with inflammation.
tumor
an abnormal new tissue growth that has no physiologic use and grows independent of its surrounding structures. May be benign or malignant.
turgor
skin resiliency and plumpness; also called skin turgor.
ulcer
pen sore on an external or internal body surface that causes gradual disintegration of tissues, often an ulcer of the stomach (pepticulcer) or a pressure sore (decubitus ulcer).
vesicle
small sac containing liquid; small blister.
wheal
a smooth, slightly elevated skin area, usually pale in the center with are ddened periphery, often accompanied by severe itching when caused by an allergic reaction; small elevation caused by injection of an intra-dermal medication, such as the PPD test for tuberculosis or other skin test
wheeze
a whistling respiratory sound, typical of asthma.
wound sinus
canal or passage leading to an abscess.
anuria
complete suppression of urine secretion in the kidney.
calculi
an abnormal concretion usually composed of mineral salts, occurring in the hollow body organs; a "stone," as a calculus in the kidney (pl: calculi); deposit on the teeth (tartar).
constipation
difficult or infrequent and hardened bowel movements.
cystitis
inflammation of any bladder(most often refers to urinary bladder)
defecation
discharge of solid waste matter (feces) from the intestines.
diarrhea
abnormal frequency and fluidity of discharge from the bowels
distention
swelling or fullness, as in urinary distention.
dysuria
difficult or painful urination or voiding.
enema
an injection of fluid or medication into the rectum, usually to induce evacuation of the bowel
enuresis
involuntary urine discharge, usually occurring during sleep; bedwetting.
fecal impaction
accumulation of hardened stool in the rectum.
flatus
gas in the intestines or stomach; gas expelled through the anus.
incontinence
inability to control urination or defecation (adj: incontinent).
Kegel exercises
exercises designed to increase sphincter tone by tightening, holding, and releasing the muscles of the pelvic floor and sphincter, used to improve incontinence.
melena
passage of dark-colored stools containing partially or fully digested blood; also used to mean abnormal blood in the stool or vomitus.
micturition
passage of urine from the urinary bladder; also called voiding, urinating.
nocturia
excessive voiding (urination) during the night.
oliguria
deficient urinary secretion or infrequent urination
polyuria
voiding an excessive amount of urine.
projectile vomiting
emesis expelled with great force.
renal colic
severe, penetrating lower back pain, caused by a stone becoming lodged in the ureter
steatorrhea
The excretion of abnormal quantities of fat with the feces owing to reduced absorption of fat by the intestine.
urgency
desire or sensation of needing to void immediately.
urinary catheter
tube inserted into the bladder through the urethra to remove urine.
urinary frequency
voiding more often than usual without an increase in total urine volume
urinary retention
inability to empty the bladder of urine.
urinary suppression
stopping or inhibition of urination. Suppression of secretion urine is not formed. Suppression of excretion urine is not expelled
voiding
to cast out wastes, as to urinate, micturate.
vomitus
stomach contents expelled by vomiting or emisis
expectorate
spitting out and coughing up mucus or other fluid from the lungs and the throat.
guaiac
tool examination for blood; also known as Hemoccult.
Hematest
a test for occult (hidden) blood in stool or body secretions.
Hemoccult
a test for occult (hidden) blood in stool or body secretions
hydrometer
urinometer (used to measure specific gravity of a liquid, such as urine).
occult
hidden
residual urine
amount of urine that remains in the bladder after voiding at least once.
specific gravity
a substance's weight, as compared with another. Fluids, such as urine, are compared to (pure water, which has a specific gravity of 1.000) and (Urine 1.010-1.025)
urinalysis
examination of urine
urinometer
an instrument that deter-mines urine's specific gravity; also called urometer, hydrometer.
venipuncture
puncture of a vein, usually with a needle. May be used to obtain a blood specimen or to start an intravenous infusion (IV).
antiembolism stockings
also called TED socks; elastic stockings that cover the foot (not the toes) and the leg, up to the knee or mid-thigh.
Kerlix
type of stretchy gauze used to hold dressings in place.
maceration
softening of a solid due to soaking, until connective tissue
fibers are dissolved, such as maceration of the skin under a cast or bandage
Montgomery straps
easily removable straps that stay in place to facilitate dressing removal
peripheral neurovascular assessment
method for evaluating the status of an extremity in a bandage or case
aquathermia pad
pad which produces a dry heat by the use of temperature-controlled water flowing through a waterproof shell.
hypothermia blanket
cooling blanket; also called hypothermia blanket
sitz bath
a bath used to apply heat to the pelvic area.
tepid sponge bath
bath with water below body temperature, 70 to 85º F, used to reduce fever
acute pain
acute pain; a pain sensation that results abruptly.
adjuvant
assisting or enhancing therapy given, especially in cancer, to prevent further growth or pain; therapy used which was originally intended for another purpose.
analgesics
an agent that relieves pain without causing unconsciousness.
body cue
feelings experienced in response to body rhythms, self-monitoring
cancer pain
specific type of pain identified by IASP, caused by a malignancy; often intractable and severe; usually chronic
chronic pain
pain that lasts more than six months; neuropathic pain.
endorphins
a naturally occurring analgesic that the body produces in response to exercise and other stimuli
guided imagery
a process through which the client receives a suggestion that helps control his or her pain or disease. The person learns to visualize himself or herself as powerful and able to conquer pain or disease.
intractable pain
that which cannot be relieved; continuous, relentless, as in intractable pain.
neuropathic pain
chronic pain or discomfort that continues for six months or longer and interferes with normal functioning.
nociception
normal pain transmission
nociceptive pain
acute pain; a pain sensation that results abruptly
pain
feeling of suffering, distress or agony, caused by stimulation of specialized nerve endings, a protective device of the body; a subjective sensation (reported by the client).
pain threshold
lowest intensity of a stimulus that causes a subject to recognize pain.
pain tolerance
point at which a per-son can no longer tolerate pain.
referred pain
(referring to pain) pain that is felt at a location other than its origination; when one physician sends (refers) a client to another physician or specialist.
anesthesia
complete or partial loss of sensation.
atelectasis
collapse of all or part of a lung.
conduction block
a form of regional anesthesia, also known as conduction block.
conscious sedation
condition in which internal sedative medications are used alone or in conjunction with local anesthetics and the client has a depressed level of consciousness but is still able to breathe and respond to verbal stimuli.
dehiscence
opening or separation of the surgical incision.
elective
case in which the client's condition is not life-threatening and may choose whether or not to have surgery; also called optional surgery
embolus
a foreign substance, blood clot, fat globule, piece of tissue, or air bubble carried in a blood vessel, which partially or completely obstructs blood flow (embolism; pl. emboli)
evisceration
the protrusion of the intestines through an abdominal wound; removal of the internal body contents.
general anesthesia
the blockage of all body sensations, causing un-consciousness and loss of reflexes.
hemorrhage
excessive bleeding(internal or external); escape of blood from non-intact blood vessels.
hypothermia
low body temperature; also a syndrome (accidental hypothermia), caused by exposure to cold, which may be fatal. Hypothermia may also be induced for therapeutic purposes such as surgery, or pathologic as a result of faulty thermoregulation (temperature control)
hypoxemia
interference with blood oxygenation.
hypoxia
abnormal reduction of oxygen in the tissues.
incentive spirometer
a device used to force the client to concentrate on inspiration and promote full inflation of the lungs, while providing immediate feedback; used particularly after surgery and in lung disorders.
intraoperative
occurring during a surgical operation.
local anesthesia
disruption of sensation to a specific body area without causing unconsciousness; caused by infiltration or topical application of anesthetic, usually to a small area; not general.
perioperative
the period surrounding surgery; includes the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods
pneumonia
lung inflammation, with consolidation and drainage
postoperative
after surgery
preoperative
before surgery
regional anesthesia
interruption of sensory nerve conductivity to specific area of the body (includes conduction block, field block, nerve block).
spinal anesthesia
anesthetic injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord providing an extensive conduction block. Many types of surgery can be performed in this manner.
splinting
use of a pillow or large towel to provide support along a suture line.
suture
thread used to hold an incision together while it heals; also called stitches.
thrombolytic
type of medication designed to dissolve a clot and clear a blocked blood vessel.
thrombophlebitis
formation of a blood clot in a vein, with inflammation
venous access lock
catheter used to maintain an open route to a client's venous system to give fluids and/or medications.
client-oriented
focused on meeting individualized needs.
critical thinking
mix of inquiry, knowledge, intuition, logic, experience, and common sense.
evaluation
in nursing process, measuring the effectiveness of the other steps.
goal-oriented
establishment of objectives or specific desired outcomes early in the nursing process.
implementation
in nursing process, the carrying out of nursing care plans; also called interventions.
long-term goal
an outcome or goal that a client hopes to achieve but may require an extended amount of time to do so
nursing assessment
systematic and continuous collection and analysis of information about the client
nursing care plan
guidelines used by healthcare facilities to plan the care for clients.
nursing diagnosis
a statement about the client's actual or potential health concerns that can be managed through independent nursing intervention.
nursing process
systematic method in which the nurse and client work together to plan and carry out effective nursing care. (The steps include assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.)
planning
in nursing process, developing goals to prevent, reduce, or eliminate problems and identifying nursing interventions that will assist in meeting these goals.
prioritization
prioritizing: in the nursing process, following specific steps to determine the client's most important needs.
scientific problem-solving
precise method of investigating problems and arriving at solutions
short-term goal
an expected outcome or goal that a client can reasonably meet in a matter of hours or days.
trial and error problem-solving
experimental problem solving that tests ideas to decide which methods work and which do not.
data analysis
analyzing each piece of information to determine its relevance to a client's health problems and its relationship to other pieces of information.
health interview
way of soliciting information from the client; may also be called a nursing history.
nursing assessment
systematic and continuous collection and analysis of information about the client
nursing history
way of soliciting information from the client; may also be called a health interview.
nursing progress notes(nurses' notes):
documentation by nurses of care given and observations made; charting data input
objective data
all measurable and observable pieces of information about a client and his or her overall state of health
observation
assessment tool that relies on the use of the five senses to discover objective information about the client.
potential needs
in the nursing process, needs which may occur; identified as at risk for...
subjective data
information that consists of the client's opinions and feeling about what is happening, conveyed to the nurse either directly or through body language
collaborative problem
problem in which nurses work with physicians or other healthcare providers.
expected outcome
measurable behavior that indicates whether a person has achieved the expected benefit of nursing care
Kardex
a flip file with card slots or a notebook for each client on a unit or nursing care team; a system for recording background information and care related to a client's treatment.
long-term objective
an outcome or goal that a client hopes to achieve but may require an extended amount of time to do so.
medical diagnosis
statement formulated by a primary healthcare provider that identifies the disease a person is believed to have, which provides a basis for prognosis and treatment decisions.
nursing diagnosis
a statement about the client's actual or potential health concerns that can be managed through independent nursing intervention.
planning
in nursing process, developing goals to prevent, reduce, or eliminate problems and identifying nursing interventions that will assist in meeting these goals..
prognosis
projected client outcome.
short-term objective
an expected outcome or goal that a client can reasonably meet in a matter of hours or days.