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Anatomy & Physiology II Final
Terms in this set (31)
branch from the renal artery, which supplies blood to the kidneys. a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons in many excretory systems. They play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure as a part of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism.
The main function of the ________ is to filter plasma to produce _________ filtrate, which passes down the length of the nephron tubule to form urine.
Supply the blood for the extensive network of capillaries that surround the cortical and medullary tubular system of the kidneys, known as the peritubular capillary network.
peritubular capillary beds
Tiny blood vessels, supplied by the efferent arteriole, that travel alongside nephrons allowing reabsorption and secretion between blood and the inner lumen of the nephron.
Long, hairpin-shaped blood vessels that run parallel to the loops of Henle. The hairpin turns slow the rate of blood flow, which helps maintain the osmotic gradient required for water reabsorption.
hormone that helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water the kidneys reabsorb while they are filtering wastes out of the blood.
an enzyme that helps control your blood pressure. It's made by special cells in your kidneys. When your blood pressure drops too low or your body doesn't have enough salt, _______ gets sent into your bloodstream
a steroid hormone. Its main role is to regulate salt and water in the body, thus having an effect on blood pressure.
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Acts acutely to reduce plasma volume by at least 3 mechanisms: increased renal excretion of salt and water, vasodilation, and increased vascular permeability.
The _________ is a smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that stores urine temporarily.
o Retroperitoneal, on pelvic floor posterior to pubic symphysis
o Males: prostate inferior to bladder neck
o Females: anterior to vagina and uterus
o Has openings for ureters and urethra
- Trigone is a smooth triangular area outlined by openings for ureters and urethra
- Infections tend to persist in this region
Layers of bladder wall
- Mucosa: transitional epithelial mucosa
- Muscular layer: thick __________ muscle— contains three layers of _______ muscle;
• Inner and outer longitudinal layers with circular middle layer
- Fibrous adventitia, except on superior surface where it is covered by peritoneum
Urine storage capacity
- Collapses when empty
- _________ appear
- Expands and rises superiorly during filling without significant rise in internal pressure
- Moderately full bladder is ~12 cm long (5in.) and can hold ~ 500 ml (1 pint)
- Can hold twice that amount if necessary but can burst if overdistended
blood pressure, sodium
Function of juxtaglomerular apparatus?: to maintain ________ ___________ and to act as a quality control mechanism to ensure proper glomerular flow rate and efficient __________ reabsorption. The urethra extends from the bladder to the surface of the body.
a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in the parent cell by half and produces four gamete cells. This process is required to produce egg and sperm cells for sexual reproduction.
Begins with a parent cell that is diploid, meaning it has two copies of each chromosome.
46, 23, diploid
Most body cells have ___ chromosomes:
- Two sets (___ pairs) of chromosomes
- One maternal, one paternal: homologous chromosomes
- Referred to as ____________ chromosomal number (2n)
haploid, meiosis, 4
o Gametes have only 23 chromosomes: __________ chromosomal number (n)
- Only one member of homologous pair
o Gamete formation involves ___________,
- Involves two consecutive cell divisions (I and II), but only one round of DNA replication
- Produces ___ daughter cells
- Number of chromosomes are cut in half (2n to n)
- Introduces genetic diversity, as all daughter cells are genetically different from original cell
Spermatogenic, Mitosis, spermatocytes, Meiosis, spermatids, Spermatogenesis
o _______________ cells give rise to sperm
o Overview of three steps of spermatogenesis:
1. ___________ of spermatogonia (stem cell) forms two _____________
- Spermatocytes form secondary spermatocytes, which form _____________
- Spermatids become sperm
GnRH, FSH, LH, testosterone, and inhibin
MALE - Production of gametes and sex hormones is regulated by sequence of hormonal events involving hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and testes.
o Referred to as hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis
o Involves interacting hormones: ________________________________________
_______________ is the production of female gametes takes years to complete.
o Begins in fetal period
- Oogonia (2n ovarian stem cells) multiply by _________ and store nutrients
- Primary oocytes develop in primordial follicles that become surrounded by follicle cells
- Primary oocytes begin meiosis but stall in prophase I
- At birth, female presumed to have lifetime supply of primary oocytes
o Several million primary oocytes develop in an embryo
- only a million or so remain at the time of birth
- only 400,00 or so remain at puberty
- fewer than 400 or 500 will be released from the ovary during the female's reproductive life
meiosis I, metaphase II, Ovum
Each month after puberty, a few primary oocytes are activated
o One from this group is "selected" each month to become dominant follicle that resumes _______
o After division is completed, two haploid cells of different sizes are produced:
- Secondary oocyte: large cell with almost all of mother cell cytoplasm and organelles
- First polar body: small cell almost devoid of cytoplasm
o Secondary oocyte arrests in __________ and becomes the ovulated ovum
- If not penetrated by sperm, it deteriorates
- If penetrated by sperm, second oocyte completes meiosis II, yielding:
• __________ (functional gamete)
• Second polar body
o Number of functional gametes differ
- Oogenesis produces one viable ovum with three polar bodies
- Unequal divisions ensure oocyte has ample nutrients for 6- to 7-day journey to uterus
- Polar bodies degenerate and die
menstrual, proliferative (preovulatory), secretory (postovulatory)
Uterine (menstrual) cycle is a series of changes in endometrium that occur in response to fluctuating ovarian hormone levels
o Three phases:
- Days 1-5: ____________ phase
- Days 6-14: ______________ phase
- Days 15-28: ____________ phase
- Promote oogenesis and follicle growth in ovary
- Exert anabolic effect on female reproductive tract
- Support rapid short-lived growth spurts at puberty
- Induce secondary sex characteristics
• Growth of breasts
• Increased deposit of subcutaneous fat (hips and breasts)
• Widening and lightening of pelvis
Works with estrogen to establish and regulate uterine cycle
- Promotes changes in cervical mucus
- Effects of placental during pregnancy
- Inhibits uterine motility
- Helps prepare breasts for lactation
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (Lutenizing hormone), FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin
Male Sequence of regulatory events:
1. Hypothalamus releases ________
2. Which binds to anterior pituitary gonadotropic cells, causing them to secrete:
3. _____ stimulates spermatogenesis.
4. _____ binds to interstitial endocrine cells, prodding them to secrete testosterone
5. Rising ___________ levels trigger spermatogenesis
6. Testosterone entering blood stimulates sex organ maturation, development/maintenance of secondary sex characteristics, and libido
7. Rising testosterone levels feed back on hypothalamus to inhibit GnRH and on pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin release
8. _______: released by sustenocytes when sperm count high; inhibits GnRH and FSH release
estrogen, androgens, estrogens, gonadotropin, FSH,
Female Hormonal interaction during ovarian cycle.
1. GnRH stimulates FSH and LH secretion
2. FSH and LH stimulate follicles to grow, mature, and secrete sex hormones
- FSH stimulates granulosa cells to release ___________, and LH prods thecal cells to produce ___________, which granulosa converts to ____________
3. Negative feedback inhibits ____________ release
- Increasing levels of plasma estrogen levels exert negative feedback inhibition on FSH and LH release
- Inhibin from granulosa cells also inhibits _______ release
- Only dominant follicle can withstand this dip
- Other developing follicles deteriorate
4. Positive feedback stimulates gonadotropin release
- Estrogen levels continue to rise as a result of continued release by dominant follicle
- When levels reach a critical high value, a brief positive feedback occurs on brain and anterior pituitary
- Triggers LH surge
5. LH surge triggers ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum
- High estrogen levels trigger release of stored LH, and some FSH, by anterior pituitary at midcycle
- Surge triggers ovulation
- LH surge triggers primary oocyte to complete meiosis I to become secondary oocyte
- Secondary oocyte then enters meiosis II, continuing on to metaphase II
- Shortly after ovulation:
• Estrogen levels decline
• LH transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteum
• LH stimulates corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and some estrogen almost immediately
• Progesterone helps maintain stratum functionalis
• Maintains pregnancy, if it occurs
6. Negative feedback inhibits LH and FSH release
- Negative feedback from rising plasma progesterone and estrogen levels inhibits LH and FSH release
- Inhibin, from corpus luteum and granulosa cells, enhances inhibitory effect
- Declining LH ends luteal activity and inhibits follicle developmen
- If no fertilization occurs:
• Corpus luteum degenerates when LH levels start to fall
• Causes a sharp decrease in estrogen and progesterone, which in turn ends blockage of FSH and LH secretion, causing cycle to start all over again
- Oocyte is actually activated 12 months prior to ovulation but matures 14 days before ovulation
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