AP Environmental Science - Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Teacher: Mrs. Allison Class: AP Environmental Science
The core part of the earth that is mostly nickel and iron. There are two parts, the solid inner core and the molten outer core.
The part of earth between the core and the crust.
Molten rock that is under the earth's surface.
The material between the mantle and the crust that is malleable enough to conduct seismic waves.
The outermost shell of earth, like the crust.
See Lithosphere - The outermost shell of earth.
Volcanic regions fed by unusually hot mantle under them.
The scientific study of the movement of earth's lithosphere.
The creation and destruction of the lithosphere.
When one tectonic plate is forced under another.
A bunched up section of crust which magma comes out of.
Divergent plate boundaries
Plate boundaries that are moving apart. (Convergent come together, Divergent divide)
When a divergent plate boundary is underwater, so the magma coming out is immediately turned into seafloor.
Convergent plate boundary
Where two plates come together. (Convergent come together, Divergent divide)
A crack in earth's surface because of the tectonic plates.
The area that can be affected by a fault.
When energy is released from the stress between two plates so that it shakes the earth.
Activity in the earth such as volcanoes and earthquakes.
The place directly vertical of where an earthquake starts.
The place where an earthquake starts.
The scale used to assess the strength of an earthquake.
When an earthquake under the ocean creates a massive wave.
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another.
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid.
Formed from the cooling of magma.
The kind of igneous rock formed when magma cools slowly under the earth.
The kind of igneous rock formed when magma cools quickly at or near earth's surface.
Any separations between geologic formations.
Rocks formed from small bits and pieces of other rocks.
Rocks formed when heat and pressure change a rock from one kind to another.
When rocks are weathered through physical processes like freezing and thawing.
When rocks are weathered through changes in their chemical makeup.
Rainwater with a low pH, usually because of pollution.
The process through which rocks are weathered and carried away.
The collection of sediments or particles that have been weathered or eroded.
A mix of minerals and organic materials that plants use to grow.
The material from which soil is formed.
The different layers of soil.
Soil that contains leaf litter with organic matter underneath.
The topsoil horizon.
A mixture of particles derived from rock, living organisms, and humus.
The soil layer from which minerals are leached as water percolates through the soil.
The soil layer that contains most of a soil's inorganic matter and is mostly broken-down rock consisting of varying mixtures of sand, silt, and clay.
The soil layer that consists mainly of larger weathered fragments of the bedrock.
The relationship between the materials inside of a rock.
Cation exchange capacity
The nutrient holding capacity of soil.
Calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium.
Aluminum and hydrogen.
The proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage.
A reduction in the quality of soil.
The average concentration of an element in the crust
A mineral that contains a a useful material like gold or silver.
Elements that are good conductors of electric current and heat.
The amount of a substance that can be extracted from the earth right now.
The process by which miners strip away at the surface of the earth to lay bare the mineral deposits
Mining spoils - tailings
The minerals left over when the good materials are extracted from ores.
Removing minerals such as gravel, sand, and metal ores by digging them out of the earth's surface and leaving an open pit.
Type of surface mining that uses explosives, massive shovels, and even larger machinery called drag lines to remove the top of a mountain to expose seams of coal underneath a mountain.
Method of extracting mineral ore by hand using simple tools like picks, shovels, and pans.
The extraction of mineral and energy resources from deep underground deposits.
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