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Topic 16: Neurolation. The structure of the neural tube. Development of spinal cord.
Terms in this set (16)
Is the process in which the neural tube and neural crest forms. Its the notochord, which is from mesoderm that induces the overlying ectoderm to form the neural plate by sending out different factors.
So the neural tube and neural crest are derived from ectoderm.
1. Neural plate formation is induced by the notochord
2. Neural groove with neural folds appears
3. the neural folds will meet and close cranially and caudally like a zipper
4. the neural tube will be formed
Like any other tubes the neural tubes will have an opening anteriorly and posteriory:
- Anterior neuropore
- Posterior neuropore
What are the steps in neurolation?
When the neural folds close, many cells will be separated from the folds= neural crest cells
How will the neural crest form?
The CNS develops from the neural tube. At the cranial end 3 dilations will appear which are the three primary brain vesicles.
1. Prosencephalon (forebrain)
2. Mesencephalon (midbrain)
3. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
By week 5 the primary brain vesicles (3) differentiate into secondary brain vesicles (5)
---> Telencephalon (1)
---> Diencephalon (2)
2. Mesencephalon (3)
What develops from the neural tube?
Solid part of CNS as well as fluid filled cavities like ventricles and central canal.
What does the brain vesicles give?
The neural tube forms 3 flexures.
1. cephalic flexure- forms around mesencephalon
2. Pontine flexure- forms between metencephalon and myelencephalon
3. Caudal flexure- between the future brainstem and spinal cord
+ Rhombencephalic isthmus= between the mesencephalon and metencephalon
Flexures the neural tube will form?
1. Cerebral hemisphere
2. Basal ganglia
3. Lateral ventricles
4. Optic nerve
6. Pineal gland
7. 3rd ventricle
2. Cerebral aqueduct
- Cephalic flexure
- Rhombencephalic isthmus
3. 4th ventricle
- Pontine flexure
1. Medulla oblongata
2. Central canal
- Cervical flexure
The initial cells of the neural tube is neuroepithelium--> these can differentiate into neuroblast which forms the mantle layer. This will give rise to the gray matter of CNS. The mantle layer will eventually thicken into a basal and alar plate.
Dorsally= alar plate--> sensory neurons
Ventrally= basal plate--> motor neurons
Sulcus limitans separates the basal and alar plates.
The axons of the neuroblast forms the so- called marginal layer which give rise to the white matter of CNS.
Histological structure of neural tube.
Middle: Mantle layer (neuroblast)
Outer: Marginal layer (axons of neuroblasts)
Layers of neural tube?
Ependymal cells which will line the ventricles and central canal.
What will the neuroepithelium give rise to?
Secrete factor which regulate the organization of cells in neural tube.
Roof plate and floor plate of neural tube?
The alar plate gives rise to the dorsal horn of spinal cord where the sensory neurons are (their axons travels to the brain)
- The dorsal root ganglion contain 1st order neurons (pseudo unipolar) which is derived from neural crest cells.
The basal plate gives rise to the ventral horn of spinal cord where the motor neurons are located.
The central canal initially had a big lumen, but as the mantle and marginal layers grew it got smaller and smaller until it got its final shape. The central canal is lined with ependymal cells which is derived from neuroepithelial cells.
Development of spinal cord.
Recommended textbook explanations
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
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