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Terms in this set (75)
Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes. Regulates ph and ion composition of interstitial fluids and body Temperature. Restricts fluid loss at injury sites, and defending the body against toxins and pathogens.
Components of blood
Plasma and formed elements
Plasma-55% of total blod volume
Formed elements- 45%of total blood volume
are the most abundant of the dissolved substances (solutes) in plasma, water. Consist of albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen
plasma proteins that transport lipids and steroids. Contributors to osmotic pressure of plasma.
plasma proteins that transport hormones and perform immune functions, transport ions.
A blood protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.
The cellular elements of blood; erythrocytes rbc, leukocytes wbc, and platelets.
Red blood cells
blood cells containing hemoglobin that carry oxygen through the bloodstream. 99.9% Also called erythrocytes
White blood cells
diease fighting cells in blood. 0.1% also called leukocytes
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation. Form temporary patch in walls of damaged vessels, contracting after a clot has formed.
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Total blood volume
7% of body weight ; ( 55% plasma, 45% cells) consist of hypovolemia and hypervolemia. Normal volume=5-6 it's the relationship between hydration status hematocrit.
a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood( low blood pressure)
a blood disorder consisting of an increase in the volume of circulating blood ( high blood pressure).
Red bone marrow
located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
a hormone released by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production
a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)
carry oxygen from lungs to cell tissues; pick up carbon dioxide from tissues and bring to lungs [insufficient RBCs may kill in few minutes due to lack of oxygen to tissues. Gas transport.
Flattened and circular; lacks a nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes; red in color because of the presence of hemoglobin
a measuring instrument to determine (usually by centrifugation) the relative amounts of corpuscles and plasma in the blood. % of blood composed
Hematocrit normal value
Men 42-52%, women 37-48%
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells. Concentration in whole blood.
Hemoglobin normal value
Men 13-18% women 12-16 g/dl
Red blood cell count
Men 4.6 million women 4.2-5.4 million/ml
immature red blood cells
Stem cell of blood production
Life-span of red blood cells
helps defend body against disease and responds to chemicals released by damaged tissue. 6000-9000
passage of blood cells through the unruptured walls of capillaries into the tissue spaces (an important part of the inflammatory response mechanism)
movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
Granulocytes and agranulocytes
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
A group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei; lymphocytes, monocytes.
white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates. Reduce inflammation.
a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses.
A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 557)
an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage
Platelets Normal values in circulating blood
Needed for normal blood clotting; initiate clotting cascade by clinging to broken area; help to control blood loss from broken blood vessels
a large cell in the bone marrow that has an irregularly-shaped, multi-lobed nucleus, and that produces platelets
Life-span of thrombocytes
Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined.
Specific antibodies formed in the blood.
Type A blood
can give blood to people with type A blood or type AB blood, can receive blood from people with type O blood or type A blood. Anti-b blood
Type B blood
can give blood to people with type B blood or type AB blood, can receive blood from people with type O blood or type B blood. Anti-a
Type AB blood
universal recipient. Neither
Type O blood
can give blood to anyone, can receive blood from someone with type O only. Anti a and anti b . Universal donor.
hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood groop (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus
any of several hormones produced in the hypothalamus and carried by a vein to the anterior pituitary gland where they stimulate the release of anterior pituitary hormones
Form only in individual to Rh + blood
Negative pregnant woman carrying an Rh+ fetus. the blood group whose red cells lack the Rh factor (Rh antigen)
the blood group (approximately 85% of people) whose red cells have the Rh factor (Rh antigen)
Complex process which causes the bleeding process to stop. It refers to the process of keeping blood within a damaged blood vessel.
Three hemostatic mechanisms all include platelets
Vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood coating (coagulations).
Prompt contraction of blood vessels, triggers for a vascular spasm, provides time for other two mechanisms to work, last only few minutes.
Platelet plug formation
important phase that platelets play in blood clotting in which the opening is physically blocked because the platelets stick to each other and release chemicals which cause more platelets to stick
Most effective defense against bleeding, present in the plasma, factors released by tissue cause extrinsic cascade pathway to begin, factors found only in blood itself causes intrinsic cascade pathway to begin. Importance of vitamin K and calcium ions.
Steps involved in the process of homeostasis
Vascular spasm, platelet plug, coagulation, clot retraction, fibrinolysis
Difference between agglutination and coagulation
Agglutination more general term, and can be used for clumping of any type of particles, opposed to coagulation, which can only be used for the clotting of blood.
Reduced number or size of the red blood cells; a symptom of any of many different diseases, including some nutrient deficiencies
condition in which too many red blood cells are formed
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrow
the formation of white blood cells, begins in the marrow.
formation of platelets
an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
increase in the number of platelets in the blood which tends to cause clots to form
protein in the liver which binds to iron in the liver to form FERRITIN
a protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen
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