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Topic 31: VISCEROCRANIUM
Terms in this set (81)
Viscerocranium houses and protects the facial regions
What does the viscerocranium house?
horizontal plate of palatine bone and palatine process of maxilla
Parts of hard palate?
greater palatine foramen
lesser palatine foramen
horizontal plate of palatine bone
palatine process of maxilla
Incisive nerve and artery after entering the oral cavity (branches of maxillary nerve and artery, respectively)
= Sphenopalatine artery and nasopalatine nerve
INCISIVE FORAMEN content?
Corresponding nerves and descending palatine artery
GREATER AND LESSER PALATINE FORAMINA content?
Made up by: Nasal bones, body of maxilla, frontal process of the maxilla
Inlet of nasal cavity?
Made up by: medial plate of pterygoid process (lateral), horizontal plate of the palatine bone (inferior), vomer (medial), body of sphenoid bone (superior)
Outlet of nasal cavity?
nasal bone, nasal part of frontal bone, cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone, body of sphenoid bone
what bones does the top of nasal cavity consist of?
maxilla (palatine process), horizontal plate of palatine bone
What bones does the base of nasal cavity consist of?
Nasal septum (vomer + perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone)
What is the medial border of nasal cavity?
Nasal bone, body of maxilla+ frontal process of maxilla, Lacrimal bone, Superior and middle nasal concha (ethmoid), inferior nasal concha, medial plate of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, Perpendicular plate of palatine bone
What is the lateral border of nasal cavity?
Olfactory nerve, anterior ethmoidal nerve and artery
Cribriform plate, content?
Contains the Nasolacrimal duct, and opens in the Inferior nasal meatus. Connects the orbit and nasal cavities.
Sphenopalatine artery, posterior nasal nerves
What is the content of the sphenopalatine foramen?
Opens into the middle nasal meatus through the anterior part of semilunar hiatus
Opens into the middle nasal meatus through the posterior part of semilunar hiatus - the maxillary hiatus
Opens into the common nasal meatus through the sphenoethmoidal recess
Anterior and middle EAC= middle nasal meatus
posterior EAC= superior nasal meatus
ETHMOID SINUS (Ethmoidal air cells/EAC)?
lateral nasal cartilage
major alar cartilage
minor alar cartilage
inferior nasal concha
perpendicular plate of palatine bone
medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone
uncinate process of ethmoid
middle nasal concha (ethmoid)
superior nasal concha (ethmoid)
frontal process of maxilla
Orbital aditus, borders:
- Supraorbital margin by frontal bone and zygomatic bone
- Infraorbital margin by maxilla and zygomatic bone
- Frontal process of maxilla (medially)
Entrance of orbit, borders?
1. Orbital surface of frontal bone
2. lesser wing of sphenoid bone
Roof of orbit?
1. Orbital surface of maxilla
2. orbital process of palatine bone
Floor of orbit?
1) Frontal process of maxilla
2) lacrimal bone
3) orbital plate of ethmoid bone
4) body of sphenoid bone
medial wall of orbit?
1. Orbital surface of zygomatic bone
2. greater wing of sphenoid bone
lateral wall of orbit?
1) Optic nerve
2) ophtalmic artery
OPTIC CANAL, content?
1. Superior ophtalmic vein
2. ophtalmic nerve
3. oculomotor nerve
4. trochlear nerve
5. abducent nerve
SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE, content?
1. Infraorbital artery
2. infraorbital nerve
3. zygomatic nerve
4. Nasolacrimal canal: nasolacrimal duct
INFERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE, content?
Contain corresponding arteries and nerves
ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR EHTMOIDAL FORAMINA, content?
Infraorbital artery, vein and nerve
INFRAORBITAL CANAL, content?
This nerve run in the canal before it divides into two, each of which passes through their own foramina. These foramina are the Zygomatico-facial foramen anteriorly, and Zygomatico-temporal foramen posteriorly. We name the nerves according to their foramen.
ZYGOMATICO-ORBITAL FORAMEN, content?
Supraorbital artery, vein and nerve
SUPRAORBITAL FORAMEN, content?
inferior orbital fissure
superior orbital fissure
The pterygopalatine fossa is a cone-shaped depression extending deep from the infratemporal fossa all the way to the nasal cavity via the sphenopalatine foramen.
UPPER WALL: Greater wing of Sphenoid bone
MEDIAL WALL: Pterygoid process of Sphenoid bone, Perpendicular plate of palatine bone
LATERAL WALL: Opens to the infratemporal fossa through pterygomaxillary fissure
ANTERIOR WALL: Body of the maxilla
No lower wall
Borders of pterygopalatine fossa?
1. Maxillary artery
2. maxillary nerve
3. greater petrosal nerve
Which structures enters the ptertgopalatine fossa?
+ pterygopalatine ganglion
2. Maxillary artery
3. maxillary nerve
4. greater petrosal nerve
Branches of these nerves and artery leave the pterygopalatine fossa and go to orbit, nasal and oral cavity.
Which structures do we find in the pterygopalatine fossa?
1. Inferior orbital fissure
2. foramen rotundum
3. sphenopalatine foramen
4. GREATER AND LESSER PALATINE CANALS
5. pterygoid canal
6. pterygopalatine fissure
What are the openings of pterygopalatine fossa?
enters the fossa through this foramen, and serve as a connection between the Pterygopalatine fossa and the Middle cranial fossa
Contains Greater petrosal nerve from the external cranial base, a branch of the Facial nerve (CN VII)
Connection between the orbit.
Infraorbital nerve, zygomatic nerves and Infraorbital artery goes through here.
INFERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE?
Connection to the nasal cavity, and contains the Posterior nasal nerves and Sphenopalatine artery
Connection to the oral cavity, and contains Greater and lesser palatine nerves, and descending palatine artery
GREATER AND LESSER PALATINE CANALS?
This is an autonomic ganglion (VM), which means that it contains multipolar neurons and that we have a synapse here. Greater petrosal nerve is a branch of facial nerve that contains preganglionic VM fibers. These fibers will synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion and the postganglionic VM fibers will innervate the lacrimal gland and smaller salivary glands in oral and nasal cavity.
The fibers originates from the superior salivatory nucleus (visceromotor nucleus of CN VII).
Fibers that innervate the lacrimal gland will be carried first by the zygomatic nerve through the inferior orbital fissure to the orbit, and then they are further carried by lacrimal nerve before they reach the gland itself. This means that the lacrimal nerve (branch of CN V) carries the fibers to the lacrimal gland, but it is still CN VII that gives parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland as the fibers originate from the superior salivatory nucleus (visceromotor nucleus of CN VII).
Is a branch of facial
preganglionic VM+ VS
Fiber composition of greater petrosal nerve?
dry eyes (no inenrvation of lacrimal gland)
symptoms of the peripheral facial nerve palsy?
pterygomaxillary fissure (laterally)
Greater wing of Sphenoid bone (superior)
Pterygoid process of Sphenoid bone (posterior)
Perpendicular plate of palatine bone (medially)
NO LOWER WALL
Body of the maxilla (anterior)
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