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Patho Final Review
Terms in this set (62)
What are predisposing factors for disease?
What are modifiable the predisposing factors?
What are nonmodifiable predisposing factors?
The 7 Mechanisms of Disease
-Immune Response Problems
The basic unit of heredity
The first 22 of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in males and females
Over the age of __ in crease risk for chromosomal Abnormality
-Avoid chemicals agents that are cariogenic
-Limit sunlight exposure
Results from a breakdown in the system
Immune Disorder Diagnosis
Immune Disorder Treatment
-Disease Specific Medications
This mechanism is the first and immediate response
Innate immune mechanism
A more specific form of protection and develops after exposure to antigens
The adaptive immune system
-Rapid, specific, and with memory
-Allows the body to distinguish between antigens that belongs to invaders
The adaptive immune system
Types of Immunity
active, passive, natural, artificial
immunity produced by exposure to an antigen, as a result of the immune response
An individual does not produce his or her own antibodies, but rather receives them directly from another source, such as mother to infant through breast milk
Immunity that is partly inherited and partly developed through healthy living.
immunization; immunity acquired from a vaccination
ability to spread from one individual to others and cause disease
ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host
The capacity of a pathogen to cause sever disease
ability to cause disease
Portal of entry
any body opening on an uninfected person that allows pathogens to enter
Risk Factors for Obesity
-Self imposed starvation
-Often experience systemic effects amenorrhea
-Excessive laxative use
The use of vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, restrictive dieting, enemas, diuretics, or diet pills to compensate for food that has been eaten and that the person fears will produce weight gain
Celiac Disease Symptoms
-Severe malabsorption and gluten intolerance
-Patients will have bowel abnormalities
Bowel Abnormalities with Celiac Disease
-Foul smelling/greasy stools
Confusion and irritability
Are found in older adults
___ Patients tend to have lower basal temps
-Less sensation of pain
-Less rise in WBC
-Confusion and disorientated during infection
-Often do not produce fevers in response to overwhelming infection
-Yearly flu vaccine
-Pneumovax after 65
-Varicella Zoster (shingles) Vaccine
Recommended Immunization for Older Patients
-Decrease in elasticity in BV
-Increase of BP
-Fibrous tissue accumulate on the heart muscles
-Higher chance of arrhythmias
Cardiovascular Changes with Aging
-Stiffness of chest wall
-More susceptible to pneumonia
-Weaken Cough Reflex
-Osteopenia in the vertebrae
-Collapse of the intervertebral disc
Respiratory Changes with Aging
An abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive defects that include memory impairment.
form of dementia caused by a stroke or other restriction of the flow of blood to the brain
Chronic Hypertension and diabetes mellitus particularly when poorly controlled put an older adult at risk for developing
What influence the metabolism of drugs in the older adults
-Decrease renal function
-Decrease liver function
-Decrease subcutaneous fat
-Less body water
-Less proteins-binding of drugs
Often needs stitches staples or sutures
entering into, going through, or piercing
Chronic stress causes
a treatment, a procedure, or an error may cause a disease, which is then described as
Tendencies that promote development of a disease in an individual
is a measure designed to preserve health (as of an individual or society) and prevent the spread of disease.
of disease is closely linked to etiology and predisposing factors for a specific disease
refers to the development of the disease or the sequence of events involved in the tissue changes related to the specific disease process.
rheumatoid arthritis is an
indicates a short-term illness that develops quickly with marked signs such as high fever or severe pain—for example, acute appendicitis.
latent or "silent" stage
which no clinical signs are evident, characterizes some diseases.
are objective indicators of disease that are obvious to someone other than the affected individual.
of a disease are the clinical evidence or effects, the signs and symptoms, of disease.
a collection of signs and symptoms, often affecting more than one organ, that usually occur together in response to a certain condition.
indicates the disease rates within a group; this term is sometimes used to indicate the functional impairment that certain conditions such as stroke cause within a population.
figures indicate the relative number of deaths resulting from a particular disease.
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