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Terms in this set (250)
releasing and inhibiting hormones
Function of inhibiting and releasing hormones
Anterior pituitary (base of brain; controls growth and development) secretes
Thyroid Stimulating hormone
Follicle Stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
stimulates thyroid gland
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
stimulates production of ova (females) and sperm (males).
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
stimulates ovaries (females) and testes (males)
Stimulates milk production
Growth Hormone (GH)
Stimulates growth and metabolic functions
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Promotes retention of water by kidneys
Stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells.
Sleep cycles; biorhythms
regulates metabolism and temperature
Inhibits the release of Calcium from bones.
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Stimulates release of calcium from bones, back into blood.
stimulates T-cell development
Stress response; increase blood glucose, decrease immune response; metabolism.
Regulates Na content in blood
Estrogen in males
Stimulates egg maturation, controls secondary sex characteristics.
Progesterone in males
Prepares uterus to receive fertilized egg.
Testosterone in males
Regulates sperm production and secondary sex characteristics.
Regulates cellular hypoxia
Promotes production of angiotensin
Vasoconstriction and increase blood pressure
Glucagon (alpha cells)
Increase blood glucose
Insulin (beta cells)
decreases blood glucose levels
Response to food; stimulates production of gastric juices.
Response to acidity in small intestine; stimulates secretion by liver and pancreas.
Production of Bile salts
Atrial Natriurectic Peptide (ANP)
Increase renal NA excretion, decrease DCF
Convert pepsinogen to pepsin
mucus secreting cells
Lymphatic tissue found in ileum to protect GI tract from pathogens.
Salivary amylase production site
Pancreatic amylase production site
Maltase production site
Pepsin production site
gastric glands (chief cells)
Trypsin production site
Peptidase production site
Nuclease production site
Nuclosidase production site
Lipase production site
Bile Salt production site
Liver >> Gallbladder
Most superficial layer of skin. Replaced every 4-6 weeks
What skin layer doesn't contain blood vessels?
1st layer of epidermis skin
2nd Layer of epidermis skin
3rd Layer of epidermis skin
4th Layer of epidermis skin
5th Layer of epidermis skin
top layer of epidermis, with dead keratinocytes
Clear layer of epidermis, colorless protein eleidin
Thin layer of epidermis, granular layer
Spiny layer of epidermis, thickest layer, contains keratinocytes, immune dendritic cells, and sensory cells.
Basal layer of epidermis, Bottom layer that contains melanocytes.
Directly below Epidermis; mostly connective tissue.
What skin layer contains blood vessels?
What skin layer contains sensory receptors?
What skin layer contains Hair Follicles?
What skin layer contains Sebaceous glands?
What skin layer contains Sweat glands?
What skin layer contains Elastin and collagen fibers?
contains fat and connective tissue and connects the skin to the rest of the body.
release their secretions into passageways called ducts
glands that release entire cells, connected to hair follicle.
Secrete sebum; an oily mixture of lipids and proteins; waterproofs skin, protects from pathogens.
not connected to hair follicles. They're activated by high body temperature. located throughout body.
glands that secrete sweat to the outside of the body; also assist in body temperature regulation
Secrete an oily solution ( fatty acids, triglycerides, and proteins),
Where are apocrine glands found?
Armpits, groin, palms, and soles of feet.
Regulates fluid balance and filters waste from blood.
the outer region of the kidney that contains millions of nephrons
capillary in nephron
Encapsulates the glomerulus
Middle layer of kidneys
Proximal convoluted tubule
Water, glucose, ions and other organic molecules are reabsorbed back into the blood stream.
Distal convoluted tubule
Urea and drugs are removed from blood. Ph is adjusted H+ ions.
inner region of the kidney; space/funnel within kidney that collects urine
produce, maintain, and transfer sperm and semen into female reproductive tract.
External organs of males
Penis, scrotum, and testes.
Protects testes; keeps optimal temperature for spermatogenesis.
Male gonads; produce sperm and testosterone.
Internal organ of males
Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Ejaculatory Ducts, Urethra, Seminal Vesicles, and Bulborethral Glands.
Stores sperm as it matures
Mature sperm move from epididmyis to Vas Deferens to the ejaculatory duct.
secrete alkaline fluids with protein and mucus into ejaculatory duct.
Secretes milky white fluid with proteins and enzymes as part of semen.
Bulbourethal (Cowper's) Gland
Secrete a fluid to neutralize the acidity in the urethra.
hormones in males
LH, FSH, and Testosterone.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) in males
LH (luteinizing hormone) in males
Stimulates testosterone production
Male sex characteristics
Who produce ova?
Who transfer ova to fallopian tubes for fertilization?
Who receive sperm from males?
Who provide a protective, nourishing environment for developing embryo?
External organs in females
Labia Majora, Labia Minora, Bartholins glands, and Clitoris.
Labia Majora and Labia Minora both
Close and protect the vagina
secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina
Contains erectile tissue and nerve endings for sensual pleasure.
Internal organs in females
Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, and Vagina.
female gonads; produce ova, and secrete estrogen and progesterone.
Carry mature eggs from the ovaries to the uterus; site of fertilization.
Fertilized egg implants on the uterine wall; protects and nourishes developing embryo until birth.
Muscular tube from cervix to outside of body, receives semen, site of intercourse and birth canal.
Hormones in females
Estrogen,Progesterone,Follicle Stimulating Hormone,Luteinizing Hormone,Oxytocin, and Prolactin.
Estrogen in females
Stimulates egg maturation; female sex characteristics
Progesterone in females
Prepares uterus to receive fertilized egg.
FSH in females stimulates
LH (luteinizing hormone) in females
stimulates estrogen production
Stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells
stimulates milk production
Immune system function
protects the body against invading pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists.
Lymphatic system contains
lymph, lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, lymph nodes.
Skeletal muscle contracts the lymph one way through the lymphatic system to lymphatic ducts.
Dumps back it back into venous supply by lymph nodes.
produces red blood cells
white blood cells
Lymph nodes are located
in the neck, armpit, and groin.
small swellings in the lymphatic system where lymph is filtered and lymphocytes are formed
Where is lymph tissue found?
Tonsils,thymus, spleen, gut associated lymph tissue (GALT)
Tonsils are located in the
protect against pathogens entering via mouth or throat.
maturation chamber for immune T cells formed in bone marrow.
Cleans blood of dead cells and pathogens.
Peyer's patches located in the
Ilieum of small intestine
Peyer's patches function
protects GI tract from pathogens.
primary defense for the body against pathogens and infection
Ciliated mucous membrane
Cilia protect respiratory system
Exocrine- destroy bacteria
gastric acid destroys pathogens
Normal Bacterial Populations
compete with pathogens in the gut and vagina
General Immune Defenses
skin, ciliated mucous membranes, glandular secretions, gastric secretions, normal bacterial population.
Types of WBC
macrophage, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes.
Phagocytes that alert T-cells to the presence of foreign substances.Largest,longest living phagocyte,engulf and destroy pathogens and found in lymph.
directly attack cells infected by viruses and bacteria. Include Helper T, Killer T, Memory T, and Suppressor T.
target specific bacteria for destruction. Plasma cells: antibody production.
Helper T cells
activate B-cells to make antibodies and other chemicals.
Suppressor T cells
stop other T-cells when the battle is over.
Memory T cells
remain in the blood on alert in case the invader attacks again
Killer (cytotoxic) T cells
destroy cells infected with a pathogen, virus, or tumor.
white blood cells- produced in red marrow.
an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection
Present antigens to T cells
white blood cell with numerous dark-staining granules: eosinophil, neutrophil, and basophil
Short living phagocyte; responds quick to invaders
Alerts body of invasion
Large, long living phagocyte; Defend against multicelluar invaders.
T lymphocytes are responsible for
form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections
Natural killer cells
A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity.
Antibody mediated response
response is to an antigen.
cellular mediated response
response is to an already infected cell.
Foreign particle that stimulates the immune system.
A protein that acts against a specific antigen
1st step of immune system
Macrophage engulfs antigen and presents fragments on it surface.
2nd step of immune system
A helper T Cell joins the Macrophage.
3rd step of the immune system
Killer/Cytotoxic T and B cells are activated.
4th step of immune system
Killer/Cytotoxic cells search and destroy cells presenting the same antigen.
5th step of immune system
B cells differentiate into plasma cell and memory cells.
Innate Immune system
Born with it, non specific response
Adaptive Immune system
Responds to specific antigens.
Activate by Antigen and Helper T cells
Naturally acquired active immunity
Exposure to pathogen without immunization.
Naturally acquired passive immunity
Occurs during pregnancy and during breast feeding.Antibodies are passed from mother to child.
Artifically acquired passive immunity
Build immunity via vaccination
Artifically acquired passive immunity
Immunization given during outbreak or emergency.Quick, short lived protection.Antibodies come from another person or animal.
Skeletal system function
movement, protection, and metabolism
Hard calcified material that makes up the skeletal system.
long compact hollow shafts containing marrow.Ends are spongy with air pockets.
EX) Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Tibia, Fibula
Wider than they are long
EX) Metatarsals, Clavicle
Not hollow, but contain marrow
EX) Scapula, Ribs, Sternum
EX) Skull, Knee, Elbow, Vertebra
Connects bone to bone
Articulates MUSCLE to BONE
Covers articulating surface of bones.Prevents bone on bone grinding.
Contain lubricating synovial fluid
rotating bone turns around an axis. NECK
Ball and Socket Joint
shoulder and hip
elbow and knee
multi nucleate cell that removes/absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing.
mono nucleate cell that builds cells
Fibrous sheath that covers bone and contains nerve and blood vessels.
Cylindrical structure that comprise, synthesize, and compact bone.Composed of Calcium and phosphate rich Hydroxyapatite embedded in collagen matrix.
Primary structural protein of connective tissue.
Small channel or duct in ossified bone
Tough, elastic connective tissue found in parts of the body (Ear).
Channels in bone that contain BV and Nerves.
Layers of the bone, tissues, or cell walls.
Flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts.
Channels in bone that transmit BV and communicate with Haversian Canals.
causes brittle, fragile bones.
Brittle Bone Disease
Group of Diseases that affect the collagen (defect in the matrix) and results in fragile bones
Degenerative joint disease.
Progressive disease the causes joint inflammation and pain.
Cardiovascular/Circulatory system function
Movement of blood and lymph around the body, which permits nutrient distribution, waste removal, communication, and protection.
Loops of closed double loop circulatory
systemic, and pulmonary loop
Deoxygenated blood from Rt. Ventricle to lungs and returns Oxygenated blood to Lt. Atrium
Oxygenated blood from Lt. Ventricle to body, returning Deoxygenated blood to Rt. Atrium.
Contraction of ventricles (heart expels blood)
Relaxation of ventricles (heart refills with blood)
SA node (sinoatrial node)
"Pacemaker" controls contractions via electrical signals.
Fluid pressure generated by cardiac cycle (sys/dias)
Blood vessel that carries blood AWAY from heart
large artery branching off heart to the rest of
Blood vessel that carries blood TO the heart.
All veins empty here prior to entering the
Small blood vessel that connects arterioles to
Muscle that pumps blood throughout the body
Connective tissue made of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Disc shaped cells that carry Hemoglobin and O
Liquid portion of blood (mostly water)
Heart attack; Death of the heart muscle due to inadequate blood supply.
"Brain Attack." Damage to the brain due to inadequate blood supply.
Localized abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon. Hemorrhage occurs when it bursts.
Hardening of the arteries. Narrowing of arteries due to plaque buildup on artery walls
Not enough healthy RBC
Abnormal heart rhythm
fast heart rate
slow heart rate
High blood pressure. Systole is over 140 mmHg; Diastole is over 90 mmHg.
Respiratory system function
transporting O2 from the atmosphere into the body's cells and moving CO2 in the other direction.
5 Lobes (2 left, 3 right). Main structure of respiratory system.
Tiny air sacs; site of O2 and CO2 exchange. Occurs by diffusion (passive transport)
The main passageways directly attached to the lungs.
Small passages that connect bronchi to alveoli.
Windpipe, connects Larynx to lungs.
throat. Located behind mouth, also part of GI system
Dome-shaped sheet of muscle and tendon that serves as the main muscle of respiration and
plays a vital role in the breathing process.
Membrane around lungs, inside chest cavity
Passage of fluid to an organ or tissue
A fluid secreted by alveoli; reduces surface tension-Prevent lung collapse.
The amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation.
movement of air in and out of the lungs
Diaphragm contracts downward, ribs push out, lungs fill with air.
Diaphragm relaxes upward, ribs relax, air pushes out.
More CO2 than the body can produce (breathing out more than in)
Breathing at an abnormally slow rate, resulting in an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Neuromuscular system functions
Controls voluntary and involuntary
Long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the CNS.
The structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
A chemical substance that is released from
the AXON TERMINAL by the arrival of a nerve impulse.
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