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External Skeletal Fixation

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2
external fixators require a minimum of how many pins per fragment?
3
what is the optimal number of pins per fragment for an external fixator?
1 cm
how much distance should be between the skin and the gripping clamp?
25
a pin should be no more than what percentage of the bone diameter?
smooth
what type of pins for external fixation are placed at opposing angles of 60-65%?
positive profile
what type of pins for external fixation are placed in a parallel alignment and provide superior strength?
circular
type of fixator used for complicated fractures of the radius and ulna, limb shortening/lengthening procedures, or correction of angular deformities
2
circular fixators use how many rings on each side of the fracture?
90
the wires for circular fixators should intersect at what degree angles?
4, 8
following the placement of an external fixator, post op radiographs should be taken immediately and then again at what 2 other times? (both in weeks)
8 weeks
most external fixator frames are removed after how long?