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External Skeletal Fixation

external fixators require a minimum of how many pins per fragment?
what is the optimal number of pins per fragment for an external fixator?
1 cm
how much distance should be between the skin and the gripping clamp?
a pin should be no more than what percentage of the bone diameter?
what type of pins for external fixation are placed at opposing angles of 60-65%?
positive profile
what type of pins for external fixation are placed in a parallel alignment and provide superior strength?
type of fixator used for complicated fractures of the radius and ulna, limb shortening/lengthening procedures, or correction of angular deformities
circular fixators use how many rings on each side of the fracture?
the wires for circular fixators should intersect at what degree angles?
4, 8
following the placement of an external fixator, post op radiographs should be taken immediately and then again at what 2 other times? (both in weeks)
8 weeks
most external fixator frames are removed after how long?