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External respiration

in the lungs, oxygen inhaled from the air is exchanged with carbon dioxide from the blood

Internal respiration

exchange of gases between the blood and tissue cells


acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses


acute or chronic infection of the pharynx


inflammation of the larynx, including the vocal cords

Deviated septum

crooked nasal septum; causes narrowing and obstruction of the air passage, making breathing somewhat difficult and can slightly increase the tendency to develop sinusitis

Nasal Polyps

benign growths that form as a consequence of distended mucous membranes protruding into nasal cavity


impairment or loss of the sense of smell

Epistaxis (nosebleed)

Hemorrhage from the nose

Laryngeal cancer:

neoplasm of the larynx. The larynx is the most common site for head and neck tumors.


is the coughing or spitting up of blood from the respiratory tract.

Atelectasis (collapsed lung)

airless or collapsed state of the pulmonary tissue

Pulmonary embolism

occurs when a blood clot or other material, such as a foreign body or tumor, lodges in and blocks an artery in the pulmonary cirulation.

Severe Acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

Highly contagious new mutation of the Corona Virus

Pulmonary abscess

area of contained infectious material in the lung.

Legionellosis (Legionnaires disease)

Pneumonia caused by the bacterium. Legionella pneumophila

Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia (RSV)

inflammatory and infectious condition of the lungs


fungal disease originating in the lungs caused by inhalation of dust containing Histoplasma capsulation


Highly contagious, acute viral disease that occurs in annual outbreaks

Aute and chronic bronchitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi


permanent, irreversible dilation or distortion of one or more bronchi, resulting from destruction of muscular and elastic portions of bronchial walls

Pulmonary emphysema

chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder characterized by destructive changes in alveolar walls and irreversible enlargement of alveolar air spaces


any disease of the lung caused by long term dust inhalation "Occupational Disease" Asbestosis, Anthracosis, Silicosis.

Pleurisy (pleuritis)

inflammation of membranes surrounding the lungs and lining the pleural cavity


collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity that results in a collapsed or partially collapsed lung


accumulation of blood and other fluids in the 0pleural cavity

Pulmonary tuberculosis

chronic, acute, or subacute infection of the lungs by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus infection)

Acute herpes virus infection (glandular fever)

Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Severe hypoxemia in a patient who has recently experienced trauma (Shock lung)

Lung Cancer

cancerous condition caused by repeated carcinogenic irritation to bronchial epithelium, leading to increased rates of cell division.

Pontiac fever

milder form of Legionellosis


inflammation of the lungs due to ingection

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