***AP Euro: Practice essay questions (Barron's)

Terms in this set (104)

england and the netherlands moved towards constitutionalism
limitation of the govt. by law
balance between the authority and power of the govt.
after gaining their independance from spain the dutch resisted monarchy
James I well educated but did not display the majesty of the monarchy
divine right of kings
persons could not have their property taken away without due process of law

james I and his son charles I considered constraints were intolerable
bitter squabbles between the crown and the house of commons
charles I did not have parliament
levied tax called ship money
needed to get army for irish uprising and scottish invasion forlooming
parliament tried to limit the power of the king
tried to make his own army parliament made the new model army
english civil war
new model army defeats the king army
oliver cromwell was a puritan and member of the house of commons and captured the king
rump parliament put the charles on trial for treason
kingship abolished


Cromwell makes protectorate
excecutive power in the council of state
legislative power in the remaining, pro cromwell members of the parliament
Instrument of the goverment was the constitution that the army created that gave the lord protectorate, cromwell, the power
parliament could only raise tax now
big censorship, divided England into twelve military districts
mercantilist policies
navigation acts

restoration of the monarchy
charles II
still, relationship between king and parliament was a question
tried to deny rights to people outside the church of england
secret agreement with cousin Louis XIV of France that, in exchange for money, charles would make england catholic again
charles dies
James II
roman catholics put in power
actions challenged, religious toleration for all
parliament put Will and Mary on throne

Glorious Rev.
represented the destruction of divine right monarchy
Bill of rights
parliament had to be called atleast once a year
independece of the judiciary
no standing army
freedom of worship
representative govt. aligning with ideal of john locke
govt, needs to respect natural rights
otherwise is tyranny and people have the right to rebel
parliament gained power
cabinet system of govt,
influence of the crown declines
built on serfdom and a strong nobility
large armies and taxation
monarchs strengthened serfdom
consolidation of serfdom led to growth in commercial agriculture
landlords sold to foreigners

tried to make the HRE a real state but failed
Ferdinand II reduced the power of the Bohemian states and the largely protestant legislative assembly
established a direct rule over bohemia
protestantism was out
Ferdinand III centralized the govt. in the German speaking provinces
permanent standing army was ready to put down any of the oppositon
Hungarian nobility thwarted the full development of Hapsburg absolutism
never was fully integrated into hapsburg holdings though the uprising was squelched

Hohenzollern family had ruled parts of eastern germany
elector could choose the holy roman emporer
Frederick william
estates of Bradenburg and Prussia were dominated by the nobility and landowning classes known as the junkers
got the junkers to agree to taxation in order to get an army to protect his realm from russian invasion
tripled revenue, grew an army

Frederick William I
soldiers king
made Prussia into military state

rule of Mongols established huge empire in russia
ivan iii "great prince" ivan the great
defied the mongol control
declared the autonomy of moscow
loyalty from boyars

ivan the terrible
rose to the throne at the age of three
crowned himself the king
defeated the remnants of the mongol empire
campagne of persecution
created the new service nobility
cossacks-warrior bands of the free landlords
death of ivan
time of troubles
drought, crop failure, plague
cossack rebellion
social and religious uprisings among the poor

Peter the Great
increase state power
strenghten the army
everyone had to serve in the army or the civil administration
new schools and universities
military civilian beauracracy
talented foreigners were recruited
serfs worked in the mines and factories
established a regular standing army
st. petersburg
no beards
strengthened serfdom
gap between the serfs and the educated nobility increased
Scientific Revolution
new way of seeing the world
away from aristotle and natural philosophy-fundamental questions about the nature of the universe
new science
copernicus and heliocentrism and big universe
based on the medieval universities and islamic texts
better instruments from the age of exploration
some religious people accepted heliocentrism
Brahe-astronomer who built observatory
Kepler=mathematician, universe built on mathematical relationships
elliptical motion of planets
Galileo-consolidation of the experimental method
laws of motion
recanted his theories due to threat of church
newton-three laws of motion, law of gravitation
centripetal force
principia mathematica
bacon-scientific method,empiricism
descartes-math,cartesian dualism rigid and dogmatic
Harvey-circulation of blood
Vesalius-On human anatomy
Boyle-first to create a vaccuum

use of the new science to examine all aspects of lif e
no faith
scientific method
create a better society
Locke-tabla rasa, two treatises on the civil govt.
philosophes brought light of reason
montesquie and division of powers
voltaire and madame du chatelet-deism,reformer, good monarch needed
diderot and encyclopedia
rousseau-emotions, women in the kitchen, no rationalism, romantic movement, general will is powerful and absolute
Beccaria-denounced torture, arbitrary punishment and capital punishemnt
reading revolution
public sphere

Englightened absolutism
Maria theresa
strengthened beauracracy
tax system got better

Frederick II
religious toleration
advancement of knowledge
improve lives
laws simplified
torture abolished
reconstruction of agriculture and industry

catherine the great
brought in western intellectuals
published the encyclopedia
new law code
restrict torture
more religious toleration
improve education
strengthen local govt.
pugachev rebellion-free the serfs
undid reforms, serfdom got oppressive
territorial expansion, partition of poland
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Early propagandist for the experimental method .New knowledge had to be attained from empirical research
Formalized the empirical method into empiricism
Empiricism-"a theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than deductive reasoning and speculation." flaw = obsession with practical results led to a rejection of theoretical empiricism

René Descartes (1596-1650) Discovered analytical geometry
Matter consisted of "corpuscules" that collided together in an endless series of motions
Developed his initial vision into a whole new philosophy of knowledge and science
All substances were either mind or matter—spiritual and physical
Cartesian Dualism
The world consisted of the spiritual and physical.
flaw = rigid, dogmatic rationalism due to total trust in math.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method
Use controlled experiments rather than speculation to arrive at facts
uniform acceleration was proven in one of his experiments, discrediting Aristotelian physics
law of inertia
body in motion stays in motion, body at rest stays at rest—unless an external force is applied.
He discovered the first four moons of Jupiter
New evidence towards the Copernican theory
No longer should one rely on established authority when a new method of investigation and learning was in the works.
Conflicting ideas with the church

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Theorized that the sun, rather than the earth, was the center of the universe
Stars and planets revolved around a fixed sun
Developed the Copernican Hypothesis
Stars were put at rest-they "moved" because earth moved
Huge universe
Challenged the hierarchy of the disciplines by using math
Earth was just another planet
Where was God in this theory?
1. methods of natural science could and should be used to examine all aspects of life
2. rationalism dominated, nothing was to be left to faith
3. scientific method could be applied to discover the laws of human society as well as nature

The Emergence of the Enlightenment was fueled by Europe's increased contact with the world
travel literature
different cultures showed that truth and morality were relative
Fueled by the Scientific Revolution
Increased doubt and uncertainty
Is ideological conformity really necessary?
Questioning religion led to confrontations with the state

Newton-used experimentation and the scientific method to arrive at the truth
He created the law of universal gravitation, concepts of centripetal force, and acceleration
He did not publish his findings because he thought they were not important
Law of Universal Gravitation
All objects are attracted to one another
Force of attraction is proportional to the object's quantity of matter
Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them


Philosophes: Who were they?
Group of French intellectuals who brought the light of reason to other humans
France became the center of Enlightenment thought
French was the international language of the educated classes
France was the wealthiest and most populated country in Europe
The group reached a larger audience of elites—Republic of letters
Achievements of the philosophes as a whole
Dedication and organization
Encyclopedia: The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts
Exaltation of science and a questioning of religion
Knowledge meant progress—knowledge can lead people to climb up the social ladder, thus the philosophes felt that they were doing humanity as a whole a great service.
Austria and Russia did not allow Willian IV to unify Germany
there was therefore a competition between Austria and Prussia to dominate Germany
Economic differences fueled rivalry
Austria had not been included in Zollverein, German customs union
it had been founded in 1853 to stimulate trade and increase state revenue
Austria was the only one outside the union
Prussia had an advantage, being part of the union

Wilhelm I of Prussia appoints Bismarck as the Chancellor
Bismarck had the "blood and iron" approach to things
He reorganized the Prussian army
so he created wars in order to unify Germany

two provinces of Denmark who were part of Germany
Prussia enlisted Austria in a war against Denmark
Bismarck thought that Prussia should control the northern part of the confederation

2.Prussian army defeated Austria in the Battle of Sadowa
Bismark offered Austria generous peace terms
Austria paid no reparations and lost no territory to territory to Prussia

3.Franco-Prussian war ruined German and French relations. Bismarck concocted it in order to unite the Germans against a common enemy

In the end,

Bismarck consolidated Prussian control by fashioning a federal constitution for the new Northern German Confederation
each state would get its own local govt.
king of Prussia would become the president of the confederation
William I and Bismarck would control the army and foreign affairs
legistlature with lower house voted by universal male suffrage
opened the door to popular participation
ultimate power rested in the hands of the Prussian govt.
Oh yes.

poor agrarian society with a growing population
90 percent of people lived off the land
industrialization came slowly
serfdom became a central moral and political issue
growth of protest movements

Crimean War
emerged out of the:
breakdown of the balance of power from the Congress of Vienna
Great Power competition in the Middle East
desire to expand
Russia lost against France, Britain, Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia
war made Russian leaders realize that they were behind industrially
so more peasants rebelled

Attempt at social reform:
Alexander II
abolished serfdom in 1861
22 million peasants received citizenship
collective ownership made it tough for the peasants to improve farming methods or migrate
return to the old patterns of behavior
most reforms were half-way measures

Attempt at political reform: zemstvo
local assembly elected by a three class system of townspeople
the executive council delt with local problems
Russian liberals wanted this reform to lead to the creation of a national parliament
semstvo remained subordinate to traditional beaucracy and nobility

Attempt at economical reform:
Russia was more successful in trying to promote economic modernization
transportation and industry
govt. subsidized private railway companies
railroads allowed for exporting grain
industrial development led to growth of proletariat
spread of Marxism

Central Asia
Northern Afganistan

Come WWI, Russia would be partially modernized
constitutional monarchy
They would be limited in the rise of Alexander III, a reactionary
Second Republic:

Bonaparte wanted the government to represent the people and provide economic support
No corrupt parliaments and political parties
Strong national leader was the way to go
the leader was to provide jobs and stimulate the economy
linked to each citizen by direct democracy
would be kept in check by politicians and legislative bodies
Napoleon shared his power with the National Assembly
He signed conservative-sponsored bills
These bills, however, deprived people of the right to vote and increased the role of the Catholic church in education

As Emperor:

early on, his policies led to economic growth
government promoted the new investment banks and railroad construction
public works programs
until the 1860's he had the support of the urban workers—the unhappiest folks
In 1870 he would fall out of power

How he helped urban workers:
government regulation of pawn shops
support for credit unions
granted the right to form unions and the right to strike

power was totally in Napoleon's hands
restricted the newly formed assembly
members of the assembly were elected by universal male suffrage
government used officials to spread the news of how the government candidates would provide local benefits

Napoleon III wanted expansion
Problems in Italy and the rise of Prussia were obstacles
The middle class liberals denounced his rule
So Napoleon gave the Assembly more power
Napoleon then made a new constitution for France
Combined a parliamentary regime with a hereditary emperor as the chief of state
The constitution was approved
Growth of Democracy

Parliament represented the interests of the aristocrats and the wealthy mostly
The Corn laws restricted the free import of grain to help the British farmers, but it was repealed, no worries
The Great Reform Bill fixed the problem of rotten boroughs-many of the boroughs that once had representatives now did not exist and the House of Commons had not be reapportioned since 1688.
Chartist movement-radical working class
universal male suffrage, education for all classes of society, etc.
Disraeli, a Torie, issued the Second Reform Bill in 1867 through Parliament
doubled the size of the electorate and gave the vote to many industrial workers
Gladstone came back into power and brought forth various reforms:
labor unions were legalized
secret ballot was introduced
free public education to the working class children
Britain had the foundations laid out for a social welfare state-govt. institutions that would ensure a decent standard of living for all.

2. France
When Louis 18 came into power after the fall of Napoleon, he issued a constitution that gave power to only a small class of rich land owner and aristocrats
Charles X also ruled with absolutist pretenses, but then the revolutions of 1848 broke out
Louis Phillipe was an aristocrat who became the "bourgeoisie king" when Charles abdicated
but his reign left the proletariat unrepresented
corruption led to republican and socialist protest
chamber of deputies, the lower part of the two house legislature, was pressured by the paris mobs into proclaiming a republic
Constituent Assembly tried to suppress the riots but ended up establishing the single-chambered legislative assembly with a strong president to be elected by universal male suffrage
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was that president
internal improvements, promoted industry

Suppression of Democracy

1. Germany
Congress of Vienna had set up a Germanic Confederation
Metternich issued the Carlsbad decrees, designed to get liberals out of Austria, its press, and universities
state secret police was set up to control the freedom of the press
Failure of the Frankfurt assembly to impose democratic union on Germany led to the rise in Bismarck's blood and iron policies.

2. Austria
Italy had never been united
metternich said that it was only a geographical expression
competing city states
reorganized during the congress of vienna
1815-1848 there were hopes for a unified italy

mazzini, young italy
called for a central and democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people

many of the states looked to piedmont sardinia as the leader of the movement as it was the
garibaldi and the red shirts
victor emmanuel

before, there is a time of incredible radicalism that metternich was trying to limit
there are many independence movements coming about such as in Greece and France
the pope is against mazzini
he is afraid that they would be less catholic than before

the church was the most powerful political institution up to this time and it was stationed in Italy
Mazzini was against having a king and was radical enlightenment--did not want a theocracy either
income redistribution and property redistribution
could get rid of the church's wealth
the catholic church was upset of his radical tendencies and their abilities to upset his power
there is not the infrastructure in italy for that type of totalitarian messaging
looking to spread power, not consolidate it

there were parts of the catholic church who actually supported mazzini
Garibaldi is the more radical of the two and they effect the property redistribution

garibaldi comes from the south and takes slightly more than half of the boot of italy
leader of the popular movement in italy, as can be seen in the red shirts, who are his military force

statesman and leader of sardinia
uses agression from an outside neighbor to further his cause
goaded austria into attacking sardinia under the king victor emmanuel
cavour in doing this uses french aid against the austrians, knowing that the french are going to turn
sought unity for the states of northern and central italy in a greatly expanded kingdom of sardinia
worked to consolidate sardinia in a liberal constitutional state

unification was in 1861
spheres of influence

England and Egypt
new model for expansion in densely populated lands
based on military force, political domination, and self-justifying ideology
this model was dominant till 1914
since 525 B.C.E, Egypt had been ruled by a succession of foreigners
recently the Ottomans
Napoleon had ruled there and left a power vacuum which was then filled by Muhammed Ali
set out to build his own state
large, powerful, organized army
reformed the govt. and cultivated new lands
his modernization efforts attracted europeans
europeans served there as engineers, doctors, and government officials
Egyptian landowners commercialized agriculture to the detriment of the peasants
trends continue under Ismail
westernizing autocrat
Europeans decided they wanted to rule egypt; Ismail appointed French and British commissioners to oversee Egyptian finances and ensure that they pay off their loans to the europeans (egyptians had borrowed money from the europeans to finance those there projects)
but then Europeans had financial control
Brits remained in Egypt till 1956

The Scramble for Africa
prior to 1880
Britain had taken over the Dutch settlements of Cape Town
Afrikaners (Boers), descendants of the Dutch, proclaimed their independence from the British
they both wanted control of the native african people there
French were in the north, British were in the south
trading posts from the age of discovery, Portuguese were in Angola and Mozambique

After 1880
only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent
The British were victorious over the Afrikaners and got CapeTown
Belgian Congo
Berlin conference established the principle that European claims to a territory rested on effective occupation--strong presence on the ground, literally
Germany established protectorates
British make their way northward, conquest of Sudan
superior military


Dutch=Java, East Indies, Malay Archipelago
Russia=south of the Caucasus, central asia to the border of afganistan, nibbled on the outside of Chinese provinces
US=phillipines after the 1898 Spanish American war

Also opening of ports, ensuring trade connections
not just takeover

such as US and Japan
gunboat diplomacy, the Japanese had had their ports closed but US saw this isolation as "uncivilized" and governor Matthew Perry then went over there with his gunboats and was all threatening and the Japenese sign a treaty to open up two ports

such as England and China with those Opium Wars
For a long time China had more exports than it had imports
trade had been governed by the manchu dynasty
opium wars-trade in opium that was designed to open to china so that it would not self-isolat. British used opium and military aggression to open China to trade and new ideas
Treaty of Nanking-Britain was to get Hong Kong forever
arms race between Britain and Germany
Germany wanted to have the stronger navy
massive buildup of arms

Bismarckian alliance system existed
no one declared war because they knew that the alliances would make war too costly
Bismarck alienated Russia at the Congress of Vienna because Russia had gotten too close to Austria when the Russians fought for the Balkans
Dual Alliance was formed between Austria-Hungary and Germany
Bismark tried to pressure Russia into the Alliance of Three emperors, which would have been a defense pact against the Ottomans and the French
Bismarck then balanced power in his favor by creating the Triple Alliance=Italy, Austria, and Germany.
Russia and France became allies--Russia did not sign neutrality treaty that Bismark had offered.
France allied with Britain--they wanted better relations with them as the Brits were becoming more powerful
At the Algeciras Conference, Germans tried to persuade the French to stop being friends with England but it did not work
Triple Entente=Russia, England, France

vital to capitalism
Berlin Conference of 1885-Bismarck established rules on how to carve up Africa
Kruger Telegram-Germans congratulate the Boers on defeating the Brits in the Boer Wars. Brits were angry.

tears dual monarchies such as austria-hungary apart
First Balkan Crisis
Bosnia and Hervegovina rebelled against the Ottoman rule, serbia is led to declare war on the Ottoman empire

Britain was interested in protecting its holdings in the Balkan states and supported the sultan Hamid II.
Russia declared war on the Balkans as part of the policy of pan-slavism
Russian Revolution
grew out of the crisis of ww1
Russia was united during war
big losses meant loss in enthousiasm
special committees were set up to regulate defense, industry, transportation, and agriculture
weak leadership
under constitution after revolution of 1905, the tsar had complete control over the beauracracy and the military
Nicholas II distrusted the Duma and the masses grew unhappy with him
parties ranging from conservative to moderate socialist formed Progressive bloc, calling for a new form of govt. responsible to the Duma
left to lead the armies and left the Russia in the hands of Alexandra
she dismissed loyal political advisors
rasputin had big influence on her
Imperial Russia entered crisis mode
tens of thousands of soldiers deserted
food shortages
march revolution of Petrograd
Nicholas abdicates

February Rev.
uprising of hungry, angry people
provisional govt. is established to provide equality before the law, freedom of religion, speech and assembly
socialist leaders rejected these reforms
new govt. formed under the agrarian socialist Kerensky
refused to confiscate large land holdings and give them to peasants because this would threaten the peasant army
the provisional govt. had to contend with the Petrograd Soviet--"grass roots of revolutionary democracy"
acted in parallel to the provisional govt.
Army Order No. 1 of the Petrograd soviet stripped the officers of their authority and placed the power in the hands of committees elected by soldiers

Provisional govt. orders a campaign against the Germans
Russia was going into anarchy;desertions from the army was a thing
Lenin has room to come to power in this power vacuum (like a Napoleon)

into Marxist Socialism
thought that only violent revolution could destroy capitalism
anything peaceful was a betrayal to Marx
under certain conditions, Communist revolution was feasible even under the agrarian country of Russia
wanted highly disciplined worker's party to not stop till revolution brought it to power

Russian marxists split into two rival factions: Blosheviks and mensheviks ("minority")
Bolsheviks were not really the majority, lenin just kept it that way for propoganda reasons

Trotsky seizes power over the Bolsheviks
convinced petrograd soviet to make him their leader
Bolsheviks came to power because: democracy had dissolved into anarchy, they had superior leadership, the policies appealed to ordinary Russians

Establishing the communist state
Peasant revolution all over the place
Bolsheviks proclaimed that theirs was a "worker's govt."
freely elected Constituent Assembly would create a new constitution
this was disbanded by the Bolsheviks after having met for a day
Germany won the war against Russia, so russia had to give up all western territory (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk)

armed opposition from the people now
Whites against the communist reds
1918 is total civil war
Bolsheviks had a better army
communism triumphs
Trotsky was rigid and discipled
the outside world did not get involved on the side of the whites because everyone was just sick of war

Bolsheviks mobilized the home front via War Communism
outlawing private enterprise
rationing, taking grain from the peasants, and work discipline
Cheka-fear police there to suppress revolutionaries
Bolsheviks took back the land ceded to Germany

Bolsheviks had won
communism had won
Both of them established war communism
cities are the manufacturing point for the war effort

"Peace, Land, Bread"
Russia was industrializing, but people were still rural peasants and were unhappy and poor
Lenin set forth the New Economic Policy in order to get the agricultural output back to pre-world war 1 levels.
allowed peasants some autonomy in selling their own goods.
He instituted nationalities reform, in which the old empire was reorganized into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics--uniting many nation groups into one federal entity

Transition from Lenin to Stalin
spring 1921, Lenin and the Bolsheviks had won the civil war
farms were in ruins and the supplies were exhausted
worst famine ever
industrial production was down
open rebellion took place, so Lenin emerged with his NEP
limited economic freedom to rebuild the agriculture and industry
heavy industry, such as railroads and banks, remained nationalized, though
overwhelming peasant majority liked nep
brought economic recovery
but then lenin died without a chosen successor
contenders were Stalin and Trotsky
Stalin had connections while Trotsky had leadership skills, and obviously connections get you father in soviet russia
Stalin="socialism in one country"
Stalin was willing to break with NEP to build socialism
communists inherited the multiethnic territories of the former russian empire
ussr was organized-Russia+Ukraine+Belorussia+Trancausasian republic
stalin wanted more control over these ethnic regions, though
soviet republic were granted some freedom but not really autonomy
Stalin came to power in 1927
5 year plans
modernize farming practices so that there will be surplus
break up the political power of the peasants

he wants to maintain his control over the Communist party
ruled the USSR with the iron first
communist totalitarian
extends into the daily lives of the citizens across the territory
Farm collectivization in the early 1930's
supposed to feed the cities and stabilize and control the population
a bit like top down feudalism-strong central leader centralizes the land
they wanted to modernize antiquated farming practices
America was now into factory farming--it took away jobs, but if there is not unemployment problems then it is no big deal
gulgas, purges
Gulags and purges under Stalin
slave labor is less expensive
you are accused of a crime and convicted
solidifying their power
semi-public means of punishment and crowd control
sent people to the gulags to die, such as Ukrainians
the satellite is meant to serve the mother country
disproportionate number of people starving in Ukraine
little ice age-agricultural crisis
Ukraine was a satellite, and the satellites were to starve out first
collectivization was communist revolution onwards

However, the five year plans did ramp up the production
Russia became the leader in industrialization, but they stopped making consumer goods

feudalism is officially gone
no tsar, but gulags, purges, collectivization
from each their ability to each their need
you could be moved and kept in a single area of the nation for your neighbor
you have no tsar, but you do not have more individual rights
the people of the middle and upper class would argue that their rights had been drastically decreased

modernized economy
by collectivization, new economic policy, and five year plans
greater percentage of the soviet economy is modernized and ready for global trade
however, there was less private investment, not always a higher standard of living (breadlines, shortages of consumer goods, work stoppages, command economy did not always plan effectively)

geopolitical powerhouse
after the communist revolution and including the time of stalin, after ww2 it became one of the superpowers
russia goes from independent and sovereign to a worldwide hegemon after world war 2
they went from using winter and big open spaces for military victory to being a military power for reals

yes ussr is a superpower, but they are also in the cold war in mutually assured destruction
brinkmanship mode with another superpower
they have new enemies
they are now against the us and nato, a bigger and more consistent threat

the russian intelligencia were educated in Germany
the tsarist government could not have produced nuclear weapons

refute: the people did not have increased rights, command economy was rough, they had new enemies to deal with as a superpower
Nazi soviet aggression pact
truman doctrine
warsaw pact
big three
un security council permanent member
commecon is the soviet satellite system
fascists rise to power democratically
Rise in power of mussolini in the 1920's
before the great depression, does not use the depression to rise to power, but does use economic malaise
Bitter disappointment from the treaty of versailles for receiving no land for their efforts
strain of world war one on the italian economy
increasing numbers of workers going on strike
rise of the communist base among the lower class workers
middle class not happy
unemployment grew
1919-1922, five different governments attempted to take power
all were incapable of decisive action granted by the situation

Musso came to italy in 1910
became the editor of avanti!
supported king victor emmanuel III when he declared war on austria
Musso created the Fascio-discombattimento (italian league of combat), after the war in 1919 and this will become the national fascist party in 1921
threat of communist seizure, and mussolini threatens a coup d'etat
fascist party had grown to 300,000 members
unemployment was still increasing

At least he made the trains run on time
fascism modernized italy
more efficient municipal government
suppression of the mafia and the improvement of the justice system
electrification and roadbuilding

terrorism in the state policy
disastrous wars as they tried to reestablish the glories of rome
poor industrial growth, fascist corporatism, due to militarism and colonialism

Mussolini and Hitler were fascists who claimed that they were working to build a new community on the national level rather than international
the nation was the highest embodiment of the people
community was bound by nationalism rather than class
racial homogeneity

Black shirts were his militia to keep control over the people
Lateran agreement-vatican was recognized as an independent state
forced to compromise with conservative elites, so he never gained full control
movements, propoganda, new welfare benefits
promotion of the cult of the Duce (leader)
opposition to liberal feminism and the promotion of traditional gender roles, unlike in soviet russia where women had to go to work to feed their families
After ww1, authoritarianism revived
totalitarianism emerged--radical dictatorships in which the leader had unprecedented claims on the beliefs and behaviors of the citizens
they used violent political repression and intense propoganda
state tried to control the social, intellectual, and cultural aspects of people's lives
rise of totalitarianism was due to ww1, in which state govt. limited individual liberties in order to get through the war
disregard for human life, high state control
denied individualism as it undermined the state
massive projects of social engineering
desires to revolutionize the state and society

Hitler and Nazism in Germany
more interventionist than italian fascism
violently persecuted the non-Aryans
grew out of nationalism and racism
believed in social darwinism
German defeat was due to jews and marxists within who had betrayed their country
Beer Hall Putsch-Hitler organized an uprising in Munich
denounced the weimar republic
mien kamf
master race
race and space
vowed to fight communism, appealing to the middle class voters
Great Depression in 1929--bankruptcies and panic and unemployment
the nazis promised national rebirth and economic salvation
the democratic government thus broke down
under the german chancellor of this time, the govt. spending was cut back and prices and wages were lowered, people felt that their govt. was stupid and corrupt and the nazis felt like a good idea

Enabling Act gave Hitler dictatorial power for four years
the nazis promised democratic govt., but not really
Germany became a one party nazi state

Nazis did bring economic recovery
public works projects
business profits rose
nazis wanted a return to traditional family values with women bearing children
Treaty of Versailles 1919
laid out the postwar settlement for Germany
peace negotiations led to large expectations
everyone hoped there would be peace forever because of this treaty
idealism was strengthened by the 14 points:open diplomacy, reduction in arms, freedom of commerce, establishment of the league of nations (international policing body)
national self-determination, people should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority elections

Big three

Wilson kept pushing for the league of nations
it was established but did not enforce anything
too weak
us did not even join it
Britain and France did not care--they only wanted to punish Germany

Clemenceau was being harsh on Germany because the war in the west was mostly fought in France
clemenceau wanted revenge and economic retribution
wanted to create a buffer state between the France and Germany, demilitarize Germany, big reparations
William Lloyd George agreed to an extent but was less harsh

Wilson said no
Clemenceau gave up the French demand for a Rhine buffer state
instead there would be French military occupation in the region for 15 years
both Britain and France promised that they would come to France's aid in the case of German attack
Allies moved quickly to end the settlements, believing that further adjustments could be made later

The Treaty of Versailles was key to the peace settlements
Germany's asian and african colonies were given to France, Britain, and Japan as League of Nation mandates (administrative territories)
Germany's losses were minor, thanks to wilson
alsace lorraine was returned to France
ethnic polish territories that had been seized by Prussia during the partition of Poland were now returned to an independent polish state

war guilt clause went on Germany
reparations were a crippling financial burden on them
clause was an insult to German national pride
Germans were influenced by internal propaganda that portrayed Germany as innocent and vulnerable in face of barbaric enemies
Germany had been punished but not crushed
allied peeps wanted a quick resolution because they feared the spread of the bolshevik revolution and wanted to counteract the cries for revolution with the establishment of peace

hopes turned to ashes by the end of the year
western alliance had collapsed
grandiose plan for permanent peace gave way to a fragile truce
the american people rejected wilson's work
the republican senators felt that the treaty violated congress's right to declare war
Wilson rejects all compromise and the us never joins the league of nations and never forms a defensive alliance with France and Great Britain
America turned to isolationism, Britain also refused to ratify the defensive alliance with France, using America as an excuse
France was all alone and bitter

Also, principle of national self determination was good in theory and flawed in practice
borders of new states such as Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia were a jumble of mixed ethnic and religious groups who hated one another
the new european nations would be economically weak and politically unstable as a result
source of conflict for years to come

the fragile parliamentary government in Germany could not deal with the onset of the Great Depression
benefits were cut and the people were vulnerable to Nazi propogandists
allies were quarreling after world war ii
communist v. capitalist
hostility between the east and west was an outgrowth of military developments and wartime agreements
Stalin considered making a separate peace with Hitler
focused on pursuing the policy of German unconditional surrender
Teheran conference
Big three: Stalin Roosevelt Churchill
Soviets were worried that they were carried the brunt of the fighting and asked for a second front to be opened in France, but churchill thought that this was too direct
soviet troops would play the predominant role in pushing out the germans

yalta conference
ambiguous compromise that there would be free elections in the satellite nations of the ussr
long standing hostility
mutual distrust and security concerns
America wanted open access to the free markets of western europe

Cold War
Truman cut off aid to the USSR
no democracy
"iron curtain"
communist party did not have enough support to hold free elections
Truman doctrine
containing communism to areas already under the control of communist governments
soviets had their own atomic bomb
military aid and arms buildup were parts of Truman's policy

marshall plan promised to rebuild things

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
marshall plan for the east bloc
currency reform in west Germany made stalin worry about the us influence there
blockade and Berlin airlift
West Germany=federal republic
East Germany=democratic republic

antisoviet military alliance
Warsaw pact

West europe recovered fast
christian democrats emerged center right vision
beliefs in liberalism and democracy

Move towards unity in the west
Organization for European Economic Cooperation
Council of Europe
Christian democratic governments created the coal and steel community
close economic ties
Common market

Meanwhile in east bloc
stalin wanted to reinforce the dictatorship
reasserted the control of the communist party
absence of civil liberties and no allowing of religion
in the satellites national communist parties remade the state and society on the soviet model
one party dictatorship
only Tito could keep Yugoslavia out of this
communist led, but strong and stood apart
five year plans
too much consumer goods meant too much individualism and inequality
collectivized agriculture
socialist realism idealized the state of the working class

In 1953 Stalin FINALLY died
dictatorship began to change
launched an attack on Stalin in his secret speech
did not like the cult of personality
called for peaceful coexistence with the west
shift from heavy industry to consumer goods
writers of socialist realism flourished
cold war tensions relax
opposition to reforms
east germans were still moving west
ordered missiles to be installed in communist cuba
promised to remove the missiles as long as the us left communism alone in cuba

massive arms buildup
khruschev made the ussr look weak to the us
violent conflicts brewing in the developping world
establishing liberal democratic governments in the former east bloc nations and the soviet union was not an easy thing to do
russia moved towards greater economic reform and openness
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and the Baltic States established relatively prosperous democracies
joined NATO and then the European Union
Collapse of communism in the multiethnic yugoslavia led to big civil war

Former satellite states worked to replace state planning and socialism with market mechanisms and private property
new leaders in the East bloc faced similar economic problems: how to restructure communist
economic systems and how to move state owned businesses and property into private hands
Under soviet style communism, central planners determined production and distribution goals and set wage and price controls
"people's property" that had been managed by the state, now went to private sector

Poland's leaders went to shock therapy
Poles liberalized prices and trade policies
raised taxes
cut spending to reduce the budget deficits
at first these measures brought high inflation and a decline in living standards
this made for general protests and strikes
but by the end of the decade, the country had one of the strongest economies of the former east bloc

took a more gradual approach
issued state vouchers to the citizens so that they could bid for shares in the privitized companies

privitazation included transfering up to 60 percent of company ownership to the employees

3. Estonia-employee ownership and work cooperatives

All three were more gradual in their changes, so there was less of a social disruption
Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary were the most successful

Poland created more businesses than Russia
All three were better at making civic institutions than Russia
adopted western values that made them more open to political moderation and compromise

Social consequences were similar to those Russia encountered in their rebuilding
people were spared shortages and misery that Russians experienced in the 1990's, however

inequalities between the rich and the poor increased
capital cities saw augmented wealth while the provincial cities stagnated
few East bloc peeps wanted to return to communism, but they did feel that the old system promised stability that they yearned
missed guaranteed jobs and social benefits
individualism and competition within capitalism was tough
Ostalgie-nostalgia for the old east

And then there was Yugoslavia...

Under Tito, Yugoslavia had been a federation of republics under centralized communist rule
After his death, though, the power seemed to move towards the sister republic next door
revival of centuries old regional and ethnic conflict

wished to strengthen the federations centralized government under Serbian control
wanted to limit the amount of self rule in Kosovo
he claimed that Kosovo had a medieval battle ground that was central to the Serbian identity
wanted to unite all the Serbs into a "Greater Serbia"
his moves strengthened the cause of national seperatism
Slovenia and Croatia declare their independence
he orders the federal army to invade both areas
Civil war spread to Bosnia-Herzegovina
ethnic cleansing
but then the Bosnian Serb military overran Serbrenica, which had been under the control of NATO
NATO began to bomb over there when Milosevic promised self-government but not independence for Kosovo
NATO occupied Kosovo and then the ten years of Yugoslavian civil wars ended
Milosevic was voted out of office and sent to the war crimes tribunal, but he died before the proceedings were complete
Political and social systems forged before the war were still sound
centrist politicians agreed that managed economic expansion, abundant jobs, and state sponsored welfare programs would continue to improve the living standards

new generation of political leaders

Gorbachev was the most vigorous soviet leader of his generation
realized that the soviet union was declining in its superpower status and could not keep up with the west
tried to revise the Soviet system through fundamental reforms

government and the media had a strong break with the past
issuing reports on Chrenobyl rather than hush hush
began as an attack on the corruption of the Communist party
led to the first free elections in the Soviet union
new congress, more of the soviet people were actually involved in the government
Gorbachev reformed things on the field of foreign affairs
withdrew troops from Afganistan and wanted to reduce tensions between the west and east
agreed with Reagan to eliminate all land based intermediate range missiles in Europe
Cold war was done with once and for all

However, these reforms snowballed out of control
complicated anticommunist revolution swept through USSR and broke it apart
peaceful revolutions turned over the existing communist regimes
Germany reemerged unified
competing russian politicians
democrats and anticommunists won the majorities within the russian soviet republic
in Lithuania, the people elected a uncompromising nationalist as the president and the new parliament made Lithuanian an independent state
Gorbachev then placed an embargo on Lithuania
tense political stalemate that undermined popular support for Gorbachev
Gorbachev asked the soviet citizens to ratify a new constitution that would abolish the communist party's monopoly
expanded the power of the Congress of People's Deputies
convinced those deputies to elect him the president of the Soviet Union
he got his way, but kept losing his power
was not willing to risk universal suffrage election for the presidency
radical reform Communist, Boris Yeltsin got a leg up due to this

Yelstin embraced the democratic movement and was elected the parliamentary leader to the Russian Soviet republic
broadened the base of the anticommunist movement by stating that he would put the interests of the Russian republic above the USSR
Gorbachev was trying to save the USSR with a treaty
anticommunist movement was growing, attempted coup on Gorbachev
the anticommunists wanted to preserve Communist power, state ownership, and the Multinational soviet union but they actually destroyed all three
Supreme Soviet dissolved itself on December 25th, 1991, marking the end of the USSR
1.Wars of Religion, the first continent wide war in modern history

2.German princes sought autonomy in face of the historically weak H.R.E--Charles V (Habsburg who was using PR to increase his power by influence with Pope)

Rise of protestantism
decline in population
destruction of the Low Countries

3.Sweden and Denmark wanted to strengthen their holdings over the Baltic region

"balance of power" (proto)
Habsburg were weakened in the German territories

France wanted German territories' land
they wanted to power-grab from Habsburgs
Cardinal richelieu wants France to be totally independent from Austria and even the pope, because nationalism was strong in France and trumped religion

On the eve of the thirty year's war, Europe has a thriving land and sea trade
it is firmly in the northern renaissance and scientific revolution, and the age of exploration

The 30 Y War will decimate the economy in the German territories and some areas experience massive depopulation, BUT France, Austria, Sweden/Scandinavia (isolated, but economically viable) experience wins as a result

As a result of the thirty year's war, the hapsburgs are weakened, but not permanently
(thinking of the war of austrian succession and the war of spanish succession)
The thirty years war does not slow down the rise of absolutism because of trade, mercantilism

The 30 year war does not permanently rewrite the map of europe because a temporary proto-balance of powers because of a strong France, a strong-willed England, and weakening Spanish royalty
fragile peace

the losers (low countries, German trade)

Culturally, the 30 years war is part of a larger trend that weakens the church's power but not private religious identity
The thirty year's war, the war of 3 Henry's, Inquisition, and the Witch trials and the English reformation and the english civil war exhaust Europe's willingness to fight over religion