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Chapter 6 written questions
Terms in this set (18)
Describe the three types of cartilage tissue.
1. Hyaline fibers, which are the most abundant, have collagenous fibers which provide flexibility and resilience.
2. Elastic fibers have elastic tissues and collagen tissues and are more flexible than hyaline tissues.
3. Fibrocartilage contains thick collagen fibers and resists stretching.
Locate the major cartilages of the adult skeleton.
1. Hyaline cartilage is found covering the ends of bones at joints as articular cartilage, connecting ribs to the sternum as costal cartilage, forming the larynx as respiratory cartilage, and supporting the nose as nasal cartilage.
2. Elastic cartilage is found in the external ear and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage is found in sites subject to pressure, such as intervertebral discs, the cartilage of the knee, and as the pubic symphysis.
Explain how cartilage grows.
Appositional growth: Growth accomplished by adding new layers of matrix to existent ones.
Interstitial growth: The division of chondrocytes from within the cartilage to secrete new matrix from within.
Describe the functions of the skeleton and of bone tissue.
Support, protection, anchorage, mineral and growth factor storage, blood cell formation, fat storage, and hormone production.
Name the major regions of the skeleton and describe their relative functions.
Axial skeleton: Skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. Protection and support.
Appendicular skeleton: Upper and lower limbs and girdles. Movement.
Compare and contrast the four bone classes and provide examples of each class.
1. Long bones are longer than they are wide, e.g. the humerus.
2. Short bones are roughly cube shaped, such as the bones of the wrist. Specialized short bones which form in the joint are sesamoid bones, such as the patella.
3. Flat bones are thin, flattened, and often slightly curved, like the sternum.
4. Irregular bones fit none of the above descriptions, as in the hip bones or vertebrae.
Describe the gross anatomy of a typical short, irregular, or flat bone
They consist of a plate of spongy bone which is sandwiched between compact bone. Their outer surfaces are covered in periosteum and their inner surfaces are covered in endosteum. They do not have a defined bone marrow cavity.
Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long bone.
The majority of the bone is comprised of the diaphysis (AKA shaft,) which is made of thick compact bone surrounding a marrow cavity. At either end of the diaphysis are the epiphysis, which are made of spongy bone surrounded in compact bone.
Separating the diaphysis and epiphysis is the epiphysial line.
Their outer surfaces are covered in periosteum and their inner surfaces are covered in endosteum.
Indicate the locations and functions of red and yellow marrow, articular cartilage, periosteum, and endosteum. (6.4, later half)
1. Red marrow: Blood cells are formed in red marrow. which is found in the spongy bone of long bones and diploe of flat bones in adults, and in medullary cavities and spongy bone in infants.
2. Yellow marrow: Contains fats and stem cells. Found in the medullary cavity and extending into the spongy bone.
3. Articular cartilage: Cushions bones during movement and absorbs stress. Found on the ends of bones, where they connect to joints.
4. Periosteum: A double-layered membrane which supplies the bone with nutrients and provides anchoring points for ligaments. Covers all external bone surfaces other than their ends, which are covered in articular cartilage.
5. Endosteum: Contains osteogenic cells to help the bone. Covers the trabeculae of the bone and lines canals.
Indicate the functional importance of bone markings.
Bone markings serve as sites of attachment, joint surfaces, or conduits for nerves and vessels.
Describe the histology of compact and spongy bone.
Compact bone is structurally formed of osteons, which are cylinders formed of lamellae surrounding a central canal containing blood vessels and nerves. Perforating canals connect to the blood supply and nerve fibers of the medulla. Osteocytes are sandwiched between "rings" of lamellae in lacunae and these lacunae are connected with canaliculli. Incomplete osteons, known as interstitial lamellae, fill the gaps between forming osteons.
Spongy bone is formed of a honeycomb of thin trabeculae.
Discuss the chemical composition of bone and the advantages conferred by its organic and inorganic components.
The organic compounds of bone-- the osteoid, which consists of bone cells, collagen, and ground substance-- allow for the bone to be flexible and strong.
The inorganic compounds, which are mineral salts, allow for the hardness of bone and resist compression.
Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
Bone formed in intramembranous ossification develops from osteoid secreted from osteoblasts within fibrous membrane, leading to woven bone to form, which then differentiates into spongy and compact bone.
Bone formed in endochondral ossification develops by replacing hyaline cartilage. Hyaline cartilage is first sandwiched between bone collar, and the remaining bone forms from within, starting with the medullary cavity of the diaphysis and spreading out into spongy bone and compact bone.
Describe how epiphyseal plates allow long bones to grow.
Cartilage grows in the proliferation zone of epiphyseal plate, pushing the epiphysis away. Older cartilage cells above the new growth in the hypertrophic zone expand, and those in the calcification zone above it die and calcify. In the ossification zone above it, new bone forms.
Compare the locations and remodeling functions of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts.
Osteoblasts beneath the periosteum produce ostium, osteoclasts between the laminae monitor and maintain the bone matrix, and osteoclasts found within the resorption bay break down and reabsorb minerals in bone.
Explain how hormones and physical stress regulate bone remodeling
PTH causes osteoclasts to break down bone and release calcium into the blood stream when it is low. When PTH lowers, it stops. Leptin regulates bone density. Bones grow or remodel based on stress placed on them.
Describe the steps of fracture repair.
1. A hematoma forms
2. A fibrocartilaginous callus forms, capillaries grow into it, phagocytic cells clean up debris, fibroblasts connect the broken bone, and osteoblasts begin forming spongy bone.
3. The fibrocartilaginous callus is gradually converted into bone and calcifies.
4. Bone remodeling occurs.
Contrast the disorders of bone remodeling seen in osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease.
Osteoporosis is the reabsorption of bone tissue to the extent that the bone becomes fragile and easy to break.
Osteomalacia is when bones are poorly mineralized, leading to soft and weak bones.
Paget's disease is characterized by excessive bone deposit and reabsorption, leading to an abnormally high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone.
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