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Organizational Behavior Exam3
Vanguard University Organizational Behavior Prof. Woodrow
Terms in this set (62)
assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes
assumes that traits play a central role in differentiation between leaders and non leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes
Ohio State's Leadership studies
a leader high in consideration is sensitive to peoples feelings. a leader high in initiating structure is concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying aspect of the work agenda
vertical and horizontal axes of the leadership grid
nine position gird that places concern for production on the horizontal axis and concern for people on the vertical axis
leadership behaviors from culture to culture
British leaders are seen as considerate if they show subordinates how to use equipment, whereas in Japan the highly considerate leaders helps subordinates with personal problems.
Fiedler's high LPC leaders
leaders who have a relationship-motivated style
House's path-goal theory
assumes that a leader's key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies
Hersey and Blanchard's perspective on task and relationship behaviors
No single best way to lead. Readiness is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
substitutes for leadership
make a leader's influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader's influence.
people have a mental image of the characteristics that make a "good" leader or that a "real" leader would possess to be considered effective in a given situation. Are an alternative way to to the inference-based approach to assess leadership are termed recognition based.
romance of leadership
where people attribute romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership
those leaders who are capable of having profound and extraordinary effect on followers
Authentic leaderships involves both owning one's personal experiences and acting in accordance to one's true self
learning by imitating the behaviors of an expert and the process of teaching less-experiences professionals by demonstrating model behaviors
constructive thought patterns
focus on the creation or alteration of cognitive though processes. Self-analysis and improvement of belief systems, mental imagery of successful performance outcomes, and positive self-talk can help.
refers to the ability to change
involves developing and managing connections among individuals both inside and outside the unit of firm
also known as transformational change, radically shifts the fundamental character of an organization
also known as incremental change, builds on the existing ways of operation to enhance or extend them in new directions.
lead and support the change process, individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or even the entire social system
can occur spontaneously or randomly. May be disruptive or even beneficial. Goal is to act quickly in order to minimize negative consequences and maximize positive benefits.
the result of specific efforts led by a change agent. Direct response to someone's perception of a performance gap and require continuous improvement.
a discrepancy between the desired and actual conditions
boiled frog phenomenon
refers to the notion that a live frog will immediately jump out when placed in a pan of hot water. When placed in cold water that is then heated very slowly, however, the frog will stay in the water until the water boils the frog to death.
uses authority, rewards, and punishments to create change
uses participatory methods and emphasizes common values to create change
resistance to change
any attitude or behavior that indicates unwillingness to make or support a desired change or alteration
the system of shared actions, values, and beliefs that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members
deals with reaching goals, the tasks to be accomplished, the methods used to achieve the goals, and the methods of coping with success and failure
deals with the creation of a collective identity and with ways of working and living together
groups who exhibit unique patterns of values and philosophies not consistent with the dominant culture of the larger organization or social system,
a firm that values diversity but systematically works to block the transfer of societally based subcultures into the fabric of the organization
the way things are done in an organization
help turn routine activities into valuable and important actions, tie the corporation to the important values of society, and possibly provide a very distinctive source of competitive advantage
any object, act, or even that serves to transmit a cultural meaning
organization that possess a broadly and deeply shared value system.
the first step in the process of innovation; to create an idea through spontaneous creativity, ingenuity, and information processing
third step in the process of innovation; to identify anticipated costs and benefits
links key goal-related issues with key collaboration issues to come up with general ways by which the firm will manage its affairs
organizational cultural lag
a condition where dominant cultural patterns are inconsistent with new emerging innovations
concerned with conditions within the organization that are expected to increase its survival potential
chain of command
a listing of who reports to whom up and down the firm and shows how executives, managers, and supervisors are hierarchically connected
unity of command
considered necessary to avoid confusion, to assign accountability to specific individuals, and to provide clear channels of communication up and down the organiztion
narrower spans of control
refers to the number of individuals reporting to a supervisor and are considered necessary when tasks are complex, when subordinates are inexperienced or poorly trained, or when tasks call for team effort
workgroups that conduct the major business of the organizatin
assist the line units by performing specialized services to the organization
controls that focus on desired targets and allow managers to use their own methods for reaching defined targets
Deming's system of total quality of control
A 14 point process approach to continual improvement based on statistical analysis of the firm's operations. Work especially well when implemented in conjunction with empowerment and participative management
grouping individuals by skill, knowledge, and action yields
personal methods of coordination
produce synergy by promoting dialogue and discussion, innovation, creativity, and learning, both within and across organizational units
impersonal methods of coordination
produce synergy by stressing consistency and standardization so that individual pieces fit together
an ideal form of organization, the characteristics of which were defined by the German sociologist Max Weber
emphasized vertical specialization and control with impersonal coordination and a heavy reliance on standardization, formalization, rules, policies, and procedures
the process of positioning the organization in the competitive environment and implements actions to compete successfully
process by which a firm can adjust to both internal and external changes even as it shapes some of the challenges facing it
organizations' evolution of design structure
Over time, a firm may develop specific adminstrative and technical skills as middle and lower-level managers institute minor adjustments to solve specific problems. As they learn, so can their firms if the individual learning of employees can be transferred across and up the organization's hierarchy.
The way to produce the desired outcomes is known. The task is broken down into a number of sequential steps
a variety of custom products are tailor-made to fit customer specifications.
organization produces one or fewer products through an assembly line system. The work of one group is highly dependent on the other, the equipment is typically sophisticated, and the workers are given very detailed instructions
emphasizes shared, decentralized decision making; extreme horizontal specialization; few levels of management; the virtual absence of formal controls; and few rules, policies, and procedures
The organized effort of individuals to produce and sell through the internet, for a profit, the products and services that satisfy society's needs.
the magnitude of problems and opportunities in the organization's environment as evidenced by the degree of richness, interdependence, and uncertainty.