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Cognitive Psych - Chapter 13
Terms in this set (41)
Events that are more easily remembered are judged as more probable.
The relative proportion of different classes in the population
The tendency to think a syllogism is valid if its conclusion is believable.
The premises and conclusion are statements that begin with All, No, or Some
conclusion (of syllogism)
..., The ultimate point or generalization that a syllogism expresses
Have two premises and conclusion like a categorical syllogism, but the first premise has the form "if...then"
Selectively looking for information that conforms to a hypothesis and overlooking information that argues against it.
the probability of a conjunction of two events (A and B) cannot be higher than the probability of the single constituents (A alone or B alone)
The process of making choices between alternatives
we determine whether a conclusion logically follows from statements called premises
dual systems approach
The idea that there are two mental systems:
System 1 - a fast, automatic, intuitive system
System 2 - a slower, more deliberate, thoughtful system
evolutionary perspective on cognition
Argues that we can trace many properties of our minds to the evolutionary principles of natural selection.
Emotions that people predict they will feel for a particular outcome.
expected utility theory
Assumes that people are basically rational. If people have all the of relevant information, they will make a decision that results in the maximum utility
To test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule.
Decisions are influenced by how the choices are stated, or framed.
"rules of thumb" that are likely to provide the correct answer to a problem but are not foolproof
Strong correlation between two events appears to exist, but actually doesn't.
Emotions that are not caused by having to make a decision.
Reasoning based on observations, or reaching conclusions from evidence.
law of large numbers
States that the larger the number of individuals that are randomly drawn from a population, the more representative the resulting group will be of the entire population.
A specific situation represented in a person's mind that can be used to help determine the validity of syllogisms in deductive reasoning.
Tendency for people to generate and evaluate evidence and test heir hypothesis in a way that is biased toward their own opinions and attitudes; type of confirmation bias
Combines research from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, and economics to study how brain activation is related to decisions that involved potential gains or losses.
Procedure in which a person must take an active step to choose a course of action. For example, choosing to be an organ donor.
Procedure in which a person must take steps to avoid taking a particular course of action. For example, choosing not to be an organ donor.
States that if a person satisfies a specific condition, then he or she gets to carry out an action
an assumption; the basis for a conclusion
the process of drawing conclusions
States that probability that A is a member of class B can be determined by how well the properties A resembles the properties we usually associate with class B.
the tendency to avoid risks
risk aversion strategy
A decision-making strategy that is governed by the idea of avoiding risk. Often used when a problem is stated in terms of gains.
A decision-making strategy that is governed by the idea of taking risks. Often used when a problem is stated in terms of losses
social exchange theory
States that an important aspect of human behavior is the ability for two people to cooperate in way that are beneficial for both people.
status quo bias
The tendency to do nothing when faced with making a decision.
An oversimplified generalization about a group or class of people that often focuses on the negative.
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of two premises follow by a third called the conclusion
Involves a proposer and the responder. , A game in which a proposer is given a sum of money and makes an offer to a responder as to how this money should be split between them. The responder must choose to accept or reject the offer. This game has been used to study people's decision-making strategies.
Refers to the outcomes that achieve a person's goals
A syllogism is valid when the form of the syllogism indicates that its conclusion follows logically from its two premises.
Wason four-card problem
A conditional-reasoning task involving four cards that was developed by Wason. Various versions of this problem have been used to determine the mechanisms that determine the outcomes of conditional-reasoning tasks
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