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40 terms

Biology Honors - bcappelletti

Chapter 2 Evolution/Ecology
STUDY
PLAY
evolution
the change that occurs in organism over long periods of time
natural selection
mechanism of evolution; the explanation for why evolution occurs
ecology
how organisms live in their environment
Darwin's book
On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection
HMS Beagle
vessel Darwin sailed on
Galapagos Islands
place where Darwin observed the remarkable series of related but distinct forms of life
Charles Lyell
written by this great geologist; Principles of Geology
fossils; patterns of life
convinced Darwin that evolution took place
Thomas Malthus
Essay on the Principle of Population; Plants and animals tend to increse geometrically, while food source increase arithmetically
November, 1859
publication of Darwin's book
Alfred Wallace
influenced Darwin to publish his book
Played a key role in Darwin's argument for evolution by natural selection
Galapagos finches
Peter and Rosemary Grant
studied beak shape; found that it did change from year to year
ground finches
six species; feed on seeds; bill size related to size of seeds eaten
tree finches
5 species; insect - consumers; 4 species have bills suitable for eeding on insects; one carries a twig/cactus spine to probe for insects
vegetarian finches
heavy bill
warbler finches
same ecological role on Galapagos as on the mainland
levels of ecological organization
groups of organisms at progressive levels
population
individuals of the same species lving together
community
populations of different species that live together in the same place
ecosystem
the interaction of a community and the physical environmental factors
biomes
major terrestrial assemblages of plants, animals, and microorganisms that occur over a wide geographical areas that have distinct physical characteristics
Biosphere
all the world's biomes, along with the marine and freshwater assemblages
food chain
the flow of energy throughan ecosystemfrom plant to herbivore to carnivore
niche
the sum total of all the ways organisms use the resources of its environment
resource partitioning
species living in the same geographic area avoid competition by occupying different portions of the habitat, or by consuming different food or other resources
character displacements
the changes that evolve in two species to reduce niche overlap- to lessen the degree to which organisms compete for the same resources
innate capacity
the rate at which a population will grow when no limits on its rate of growth
realize rate of population increase (r)
the number of individuals added to the population minus the number lost from it
immigrants
number of individuals added to a population (new inidividuals entering and residing with a population)
emigrants
individuals leaving a population
r=(birth + immigration) - (death + emigration)
equation forr the realize rate of population equals the number of individuals added to a population minus the number of individuals leaving a population
population growth rate (rN)
r is the realized rate of population and N is the number of individuals in the population
exponential growth
number of individuals at first grows rapidly; graph represents J curve
carrying capacity (K)
the number of individuals that can be supported at tht place indefinitely
logistic growth equation
population growth rate = rN(K-N/K)
sigmoid growth curve
a period of exponential growth; population approaches its environmental limits, growth slows and finally stabilizes, fluctuating around the carrying capacity of the environment
life history strategy
adaptations thta adjusts an organism's reproductive rate to its environment
r - selective adaptations
large number of offspring, no parental care, rapid growth, short life span
K-selective adaptations
few offspring, prolonged parental care, slow growth and maturation, long life span