Biology Lecture 8: Muscle, Bone, and Skin
Terms in this set (79)
Voluntary muscle tissue. It connects muscle to bone via a tendon. It is multinucleated.
Body movement, stabilization of body position, move substances through the body, generate heat
Four possible functions of muscle contraction
Point of muscle attachment to bone that remains stationary
Attachment of a skeletal muscle that moves during muscular contraction
A flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
Muscle directly responsible for the movement
Muscle that relaxes while another contracts
Contraction of ______ _______ may squeeze blood and lymph vessels aiding circulation.
Shivering, controlled by the _________ upon stimulation by receptors in the skin and spinal cord, is the rapid contraction of skeletal muscle to warm the body
The smallest functional unit of skeletal muscle tissue
A filament composed of staggered arrays of myosin molecules; a component of myofibrils in muscle fibers. Globular heads protrude along both ends
The smaller of the two myofilaments consisting of two strands of actin and two strands of regulatory protein coiled around one another
The smooth ER of a muscle cell, enlarged and specialized to act as a Ca2+ reservoir. It wraps around each myofibril in the muscle cell.
An extensible membrane enclosing the contractile substance of a muscle fiber
Moves tropomyosin aside & exposes myosin binding sites when Ca+ is released
One of two regulatory proteins that is part of the thin filament; covers the myosin-binding sites on actin
Protein that makes up the thick filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells. A protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
Allow for a uniform contraction of the muscle by allowing the action potential to spread through the muscle cell more rapidly
Functional connection between nerve fiber and muscle cell. Neurotransmitter (acetylcholine/ACh) released from nerve fiber stimulates muscle cell
A dark thin protein band to which actin filaments are attached in a striated muscle fiber, marking the boundaries between adjacent sarcomeres.
The band of the sarcomere that extends the full length of the thick filament. Includes regions of thick and thin filament overlap, as well as a region of thick filament only. Alternate with I bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated appearance. Does not shorten during muscle contraction.
The region at the center of an A band of a sarcomere that is made up of myosin only. The __ ____ gets shorter (and may disappear) during muscle contraction.
The region of the sarcomere made up only of thin filaments. Is bisected by a Z line. It alternates with A bands to give skeletal and cardiac muscle a striated appearance. They get shorter (and may disappear completely) during muscle contraction.
A bundle of skeletal muscle cells bound together by connective tissue and forming one of the constituent elements of a muscle
Initiation of contraction
Resting stage; ATP is hydrolyzed
First half of shortening of sarcomere
Ca2+ binds to troponin, which pull the tropomyosin back, exposing the active site; myosin binds to actin
Second half of shortening of sarcomere
Powerstroke occurs; the sarcomere contracts
Relaxation of contraction
ADP and Pi release; New ATP binds to myosin, causing detachment of myosin from actin
Type I muscle fibers
Aerobic, Red, Slow twitch, Slow-oxidative, Low fatigability, High capillary density, High myoglobin content, Smaller fibers, Extensive blood supply, Large amount of mitochondria (Marathon, Swimming)
Type IIA muscle fibers
Called intermediate b/c their characteristics are similar to both fibers. Can contract very rapidly and they have the capacity for both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism.
Type IIB muscle fibers
Fast twitch fibers, fast glycolytic, few mitochondria and low myoglobin content. Stores glycogen and more adapted for anaerobic glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs rapidly and contraction is fast, provide short bursts of muscle contraction (eg. sprinting, weight lifting), used during anaerobic exercise, high power, unsustainable
A globular protein found in muscle tissue that has the ability to bind oxygen. Helps to store oxygen in the muscle for use in aerobic respiration (it does not move, just stays there). Muscles that participate in endurance activities (including cardiac muscle) have abundant supplies of this.
Excessive growth or development, as of a body part
Striated, involuntary, under autonomic innervation. Only one nucleus per cell. Its separated from others by intercalated discs.
Non-striated, involuntary, autonomic nervous system. Only one nucleus per cell. Also contain intermediate filaments, which are attached to dense bodies.
Strengthen the cell and help maintain its shape, stabilize the positions of organelles, and stabilize the position of the cell with respect to surrounding cells through specialized attachment to the cell membrane
The structure that allows smooth muscle to generate intracellular contractile tension; analogous to Z-line
Single-unit smooth muscle
A type of smooth muscle that contains extensive gap junction connections, making it possible for a large number of neighboring cells to contract simultaneously as if they were one unit. Such muscle is found in the GI tract and in blood vessels.
Multiunit smooth muscle
Attached directly to a neuron. A group can contract independently of other muscle fibers in the same location. Found in the large arteries, bronchioles, pili muscles attached to hair follicles, and the iris.
1. Support soft tissue
2. Protection of internal organs
3. Assistance in movement
4. Mineral storage
5. Blood cell production
6. Energy storage (bone marrow)
Functions of bone (6)
Stem cells that develop in osteoblasts-- found inside of the periosteum and endosteum
Form bone through osteogenesis, make and release proteins and other organic components of the matrix
Mature cells, develop from osteoblasts, exchanges nutrients and waste material with the blood (each occupies a lacuna, a pocket sandwiched between layers of matrix)
Resorb (breakdown) bone matrix, releasing minerals back into the blood. These cells are believed to develop from the white blood cells called monocytes.
The shaft of a long bone
Growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone
Each end of a long bone
Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
A looser, more porous type of bone tissue found at the inner core of the epiphyses in long bones and all other bone types. Is filed with red bone marrow, important in blood cell formation.
Surrounds the medullary cavity, which holds yellow bone marrow. Contains adipose cells for fat storage.
Tubes running through compact bone; contain blood vessels and nerves
Concentric rings made up of groups of hollow tubes of bone matrix
Small hair-like canals extending from the central canal. Allow for diffusion of nutrients, waste products, hormones, etc. to lacunae.
Nutrient canals located on exterior of haversian system in compact bone
The unit of combact bone, also called a Haversian system. Are essentially long cylinders of bone; the hollow center is called the central canal, and is where blood vessels, nervs, and lymphatic vessels are found. Compact bone is laid down around the central canal in rings (lamellae).
The major inorganic calcium salt Ca₁₀(PO₄)₆(OH)₂, that is found in bone.
Four types of bone
A connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together. Made from collagen and chondroitin sulfate.
The most common type. Contains only very fine collagen fibers. The matrix has a glassy trranslucent appearance. Found in the nose and at the end of long bones and the ribs, forms rings in the walls of respiratory passages. The fetal skeleton is made up of this type of cartilage, later it is replaced by bone.
Has a matrix containing strong collagen fibers. found in structures that withstand tension and pressure, such as the pads between the vertebrae in the backbone and the wedges in the knee joint.
Matrix packed with elastic fibers, making it more flexible. Found in external ear and epiglottis of larynx
An articulation in which the bones are joined together by dense fibrous connective tissue, lack a joint cavity, and almost no motion is possible. Types are sutures, syndemoses, and gomphoses. (Most are synarthrotic joints.)
Joint that allow little or no movement. They occur between two bones tightly connected by cartilage, such as the ribs and the sternum, or the pubic symphysis in the hip bone.
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body. The capsule is filled with lubricating fluid
3. Environmental sensory input
6. Blood reservior
7. Vitamin D synthesis
Functions of the skin (7)
The outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
Second layer of skin, holding blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles
Subcutaneous layer, attaches dermis to underlying tissue, adipose, areolar connective tissues (energy reserve and padding), vascular
90% of epidermis cells, migrates from lower levels, make keratin, Keratin helps protect skin, cells are sloughed off
8% of epidermis cells, produce pigment melanin, contributes to skin color, absorbs damaging UV light
Arise from red bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. they participate in immune responses mounted against microbes by helping other cells to recognize and invade the microbe and destroy it. sensible to uv light.
Located in the deepest part of the epidermis, function in the sensation of touch
Oil Glands, produce oil and kills bacteria and secrete sebum
Tiny, coiled, tubular structures that emerge through pores on the skin's surface and secrete sweat
Modified sweat glands, located in external ear canal, secretes cerumen (earwax)
A series of sarcomeres; several are contained within one muscle fiber
A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates
Small space that surrounds the chondrocyte or osteocyte within the cartilage matrix or bone, respectively
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