APUSH - Period 5 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (94)
the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the continent. It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid-19th century. First used for the annexation of Texas issue. Opposed by Clay, Webster and Lincoln, but supported by Polk.
Second quarter of 1800s. Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. Unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States.
Commodore who steamed into harbor Tokyo in 1854; said "We have met the enemy and they are ours: two ships, two brigs, one sloop and a schooner."; persuaded the Japanese in 1854 to sign a memorable treaty
a person sent on a religious mission, especially one sent to promote Christianity in a foreign country.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840s and 1850s in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
Know Nothing Party
aka the American Party; major political force from 1854-1855; objective: to extend period of naturalization, undercut immigrant voting strengths, and keep aliens in their place
in California that brought thousands to the newly claimed California territory. California quickly became a state in 1850 along with the compromise of 1850. San Francisco grew from a little town to a booming city in a very short amount of time. People came to California from all over the world struck up a relationship with the Chinese people.
Act of 1862 that permitted any citizen or prospective citizen to claim 160 acres of public land and to purchase it for a small fee after living on it for five years.
-Encouraged Bear Flag Report
-military and political leader in California, serving the Mexican government until 1846; elected senator to the first state legislature 1849.
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Little Big Horn
A battle in Montana near the river named after this between United States cavalry under Custer and several groups of Native Americans (1876); Custer was pursuing Sioux led by Sitting Bull; Custer underestimated the size of the Sioux forces (which were supported by Cheyenne warriors) and was killed along with all his command
was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the Civil War, black people in blackface. They lampooned black people as dim-witted, lazy, buffoonish, superstitious, happy-go-lucky, and musical.
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were pro-slavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Free Soil Party
organized by anti-slavery men in the north, democrats who were resentful at Polk's actions, and some conscience Whigs. It was against slavery in the new territories. They also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free government homesteads for settlers. It foreshadowed the emergence of the Republican party.
self proclaimed radicals in their opposition to the likes of Abraham Lincoln and the likes of moderates and the conservative factions. They were strongly abolitionists, and after the war was done they wanted strict punishment to the ex-Confederates as well as voting rights for the new Freedman. They also passed their own Reconstruction plan thru Congress but it was vetoed by Lincoln.
He was the first African-American senator, elected in 1870 to the Mississippi seat previously occupied by Jefferson Davis. Born to free black parents in North Carolina, he worked as a minister throughout the South before entering politics. After serving for just one year, he returned to Mississippi to head a college for African American males.
famous black leader of Civil War-Reconstruction era, hijacked Confederate ship and surrendered it to the Union, later elected into U.S. Congress
An American politician. He represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Proposal to prohibit slavery in any land acquired in the Mexican War, but southern senators, led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, defeated the measure in 1846 and 1847. It Failed
took place in 1854. A group of southerners met with Spanish officials in Belgium to attempt to get more slave territory. They felt this would balance out congress. They tried to buy Cuba but the Spanish would not sell it. Southerners wanted to take it by force and the northerners were outraged by this thought.
son of Moses Austin; took up his dream; learned Spanish and established a colony where there was no 'drunkard, gambler, profane swearers, or idler; even banished some families for being undesirable and ordered public flogging; Mainly Scot-Irish made up most of the colony;
Boundary dispute between US/Canada. Near the river with the same name as this war , Canadian lumberjacks were sent to work and Maine's Americans tried to eject them. Canada wanted to send an army but General Scott prevented this. It was solved by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842.
General-in-Chief of the Union Army, 3 part strategy for winning the war- US navy used to blockade Southern ports and cut off essential supplies from reaching South (Anaconda Plan), Divide the Confederacy in two by taking control of the Mississippi River, Raise and train an army 500000 strong to take Richmond
Republican, "Pathfinder of the West", "Kansas-less", Against extension of slavery in territories. an american military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the republican party for the office of president of the united states, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) Ended Mexican-American War; Mexico gave up all claims to land from Texas to California for $15 million
Signed by Great Britain and the United States, it provided that the two nations would jointly protect the neutrality of Central America and that neither power would seek to fortify or exclusively control any future isthmian waterway. Later revoked by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901, which gave the United States control of the Panama Canal.
Acquired additional land from Mexico for $10 million to facilitate the construction of a southern transcontinental railroad.
William Walker, a southern adventurer, tried to take Baja California from Mexico in 1853; took Nicaragua to develop a proslavery empire but collapsed when he was killed by Honduran authorities
1848-1852 A political party with the main purpose of stopping the expansion of slavery in western territories, arguing free men on free soil.
Kansas was being disputed for free or slave soil during 1854-1857, by popular sovereignty. In 1857, there were enough free-soilers to overrule the slave-soilers. So many people were feuding that disagreements eventually led to killing in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces.
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.
In reaction to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces, John Brown and a band of abolitionist settlers killed five pro-slavery settlers north of Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County, Kansas
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Named father of "popular sovereignty." Ran for president in 1848 but Gen. Taylor won. The north was against Cass because popular sovereignty made it possible for slavery to spread.
Compromise of 1850
This compromise signed by Millard Fillmore deals with disputed territory, and the controversy of whether California should join. The results were that California joined as a free state, and what was left of the Mexican Cession land became New Mexico and Utah, and did not restrict slavery. The compromise benefited the North more than the South.
a plan proposed in December 1860 attempting to save the Union; it would divide the western territories by using the old Missouri Compromise line
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, which irritated the South to no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
formal separation from an alliance or federation
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.
Harpers Ferry Raid
Occurred in October of 1859. John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a major revolt among the slaves. He wanted to ride down the river and provide the slaves with arms from the North, but he failed to get the slaves organized. Brown was captured. The effects of Harper's Ferry Raid were as such: the South saw the act as one of treason and were encouraged to separate from the North, and Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause.
occurred in Freeport, Illinois during the debates of Lincoln and Douglas for senator. This was a question that Lincoln asked Douglas that made Douglas answer in such a way that the South would know that he was not truly supporting them.
Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine
book entitled 'Impending Crisis of the South' that stirred trouble. Attempted to prove that indirectly the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery; the book was banned in the South but countless copies were distributed as campaign material for republicans
leading advocate of a paternalistic sociological defense of slavery who argued that blacks needed the guidance, restraint, and protection of white masters, and who caompared the treatment of southern slaves favorably to that of free blacks and whites working in northern factories.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War. In 1862, when she visited President Lincoln, legend claims that he greeted her: "So this is the little lady who made this big war?"
the President of the Southern Confederate States from 1860 to 1865 after their succession from the Union. During this time, Davis struggled to form a solid government for the states to be governed by. Jefferson Davis worked hard with solidating the civil government and carrying out military operations. POLITICAL.
also called the National Greenback party, was organized in 1876 to campaign for expansion of the supply of paper money—"greenbacks"—first issued by the federal government in 1862 to help pay for the Civil War. The idea that maintaining a flexible supply of paper money served the interests of working people, whereas paper money backed by specie (hard money, like gold or silver) benefited only the rich, had been advanced by Edward Kellogg as early as 1841.
Morrill Tariff Act
This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war. This was just one the new taxes being passed to meet the demanding costs of the war. Although they were still low to today's standers they still raked in millions of dollars.
Morrill Land Grant
law passed by congress july 1862 awarding proceeds from the sale of public lands to states for the establishment of agricultural colleges
A fort in SE South Carolina, guarding Charleston Harbour. Its capture by Confederate forces (1861) was the first action of the Civil War.
(Thomas Stonewall Jackson) he was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. he earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of chancellorsville his own men accidently mortally wounded him.
Plan for civil war proposed by general-in-chief Winfield Scott, which emphasized the blockade of Southernp ports and called for an advance down the Mississippi River the cut the South in two, the plan would suffocate the South
-contained of the following objectives:
1. Put a naval blockade the South.
2. Free the slaves.
3. Divide the South along the Mississippi River.
4. Divide and crush the South by marching through Georgia and the Carolinas.
5. Capture the Southern capital of Richmond.
6. Engage the enemy anywhere possible and grind them into submission.
Robert E Lee
The General of the Confederate troops; he was prosperous in many battles; was defeated at Antietam in 1862 when he retreated across the Potomac; this halt of Lee's troops justified Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation; he was defeated at Gettysburg by General Mead's Union troops; surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
Southern failure to procure victory in the North meant no foreign support for the Confederacy. bloodiest day in the whole civil war. 23,000 total casualties
the first engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Chesapeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw
General Lee lead the Confederate troops into Pennsylvania. He surprised the units in Gettysburg and the battle was the most crucial and bloodiest of the war. General George Pickett led a charge that broke the Confederate attack. The victory at Gettysburg belonged to Lincoln and the Union.
battle for control of mississippi river. Union's goal to split Confederacy and restore free commerce to NW An attempt to take Vicksburg, Miss by water and from N. failed. Grant decided to take it from South and opened siege; Confederate forces unable to unite, and after about six weeks Vicksburg's defenders surrendered on July 4, 1863
Appomattox Court House
Lee forced to totally surrender at this court house in 1865; Union treated enemy with respect and allowed Lee's men to return home to their families with their horses
Laws passed by the United States government during the Civil War with the intention of freeing the slaves still held by the Confederate forces in the South. Union General Benjamin Butler refused to return captured slaves to their Confederate owners, arguing that they were "contraband of war."
Abolition of slavery (involuntary servitude).
Congress has the power to enforce this via legislation.
Citizenship given to ex-slaves.
Three-fifths clause abolished.
Leading ex-Confederates denied office.
Ex-Confederates forced to repudiate their debts and pay pensions to their own (CSA) veterans, plus taxes for the pensions of Union veterans.
Congress has the power to enforce this via legislation.
Suffrage given to black males.
Congress has the power to enforce this via legislation.
from Atlanta to South Carolina, he and his army applied a total warfare, scorched earth policy that led over a million dollars in damage and crushed the south (March to the Sea)
Union warship stopped a British ship on way to England and arrested 2 Confederate diplomats-James Mason and John Slidell
Britain prepared for war against US-sent troops to Canada
Lincoln decided to release Confederates because he did not want to fight a two front war
He said Captain of Union Ship acted without orders
a group of political activists from the north that believed in an anti-war style of politics. They were first to claim that the north was not going to war on the basis of uniting the country, rather to free the slaves. Overall, they were a racist group of people, they went as far to proclaim that Abraham Lincoln was secretly a black African man that had a secret agenda to free all Africans.
After victory of Antietam, Lincoln announces on the first of 1863 all slaves in the rebelling states would be free. AIM: injure confederacy, threaten its property, heighten its dread, hurt its morale.
Ex Parte Milligan
A United States Supreme Court case that ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating is unconstitutional.
The right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime; during the Civil War Abraham Lincoln suspended this
the 1867-1868 scandal in which Union Pacific executives formed their own railroad construction company, then hired and overpaid themselves to build their own railroad
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians
An American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician He helped support reform movements and anti-slavery efforts through his New York Tribune newspaper
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
When the south was returned to Conservative Democratic rule after the Radical Republicans of Reconstruction
Required 50% voters of a state to take a loyalty oath: permitted only non-Confederates to vote for a new state constitution. Lincoln refused to sign this bill.
A) bureau that acted as a kind of early welfare agency, providing food, shelter, and medical aid for those made destitute by the war. B) Greatest success was in education. C) Attempts at reselling freed blacks were foiled by President Johnson D) Led by General Oliver O. Howard
laws made in 1865-66 enacted by Southern state legislatures to give whites power over blacks; these laws were overrideen by Congress when the powers of the Freedman's Bureau were widened and when the First Civil Rights Act was passed in 1866 in defense of African American rights.
A process led by the Radical Republicans that led to the usage of military force to protect blacks' rights.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent
terrorist group of white southerners who used violence to keep blacks from voting
Force Acts 1870/1
the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.
a term for a southern white in the post-civil war era the supported reconstruction.
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
A Republican leader and one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives. He was chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee,and a witty, sarcastic speaker and flamboyant party leader who dominated the House from 1861 until his death and wrote much of the financial legislation that paid for the American Civil War.
An American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during the American Civil War from 1862-1865. His effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory.
The Reconstruction plans of Lincoln and Johnson who believed it was the executive's power to rebuild the South. It was the first "round" of the Reconstruction, from 1863 to the spring of 1866.
Congress' approach: readmission of "loyal" southern states, blacks acquire basic rights of citizenship
Amnesty Act 1872
The Amnesty Act of 1872 removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most whites who rebelled in the United States Civil War, except for very high positions.
A founder of the Republican Party and senator from Ohio from 1851 to 1869. A passionate abolitionist, he pressured President Lincoln throughout the Civil War to pursue harsher policies toward the South. He co-sponsored the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864, which required 50 percent of the registered voters of a southern state to take a loyalty oath as a precondition for restoration to the Union, rather than the 10 percent proposed by Lincoln. As President Pro Tempore of the Senate in 1868, he was next in line for the presidency should Andrew Johnson be impeached, and the prospect that someone of such radical views might become president may have contributed to the failure of the effort to impeach Johnson.
Civil Rights Act 1866
An act declaring that everyone born in the U.S. is a citizen, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of slavery
Civil Rights Act 1875
passed legislation that guaranteed access to transportation and hotels for all blacks; repealed blacks codes and removed restrictions on workers; prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection; became a watered down bill that the Supreme Court eventually struck down