Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Airway respiration and ventilation
Get Quizlet's official NREMT - 1 term, 1 practice question, 1 full practice test
Terms in this set (21)
Which of the following is the division point between the upper and lower airway?
The laryngopharynx is the division point between the upper and lower airway and includes the epiglottis and vocal cords. The pharynx is the general term for the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx which make up the upper airway. The oropharynx makes up the oral cavity and the nasopharynx makes up the nasal cavity.
Which of the following would indicate a conscious patient is experiencing an obstructed upper airway?
The patients head is in the sniffing position
The patient is able to speak
The patient's chest is rising and falling equally bilaterally
There is no high pitched sound when the patient breathes
The patient's head in the sniffing position is an indication of on obstructed upper airway due to swelling. All other options are indications that the patient is capable of moving air normally.
When is it appropriate to use a nasopharyngeal airway rather than an oropharyngeal airway?
When the patient has been in a traumatic collision and milky fluid is visible in the ears
When the is unconscious
When the patient's gag reflex is intact and no CSF is visible
When there is a physical obstruction in the oropharynx
It is only appropriate to use a nasopharyngeal airway in a conscious patient, with an intact gag reflex, who has no visible CSF (a white, milky fluid) in their ear canals or pharynx. If there is a physical obstruction in the oropharynx it must be cleared before any airway is inserted.
All of the following are rules that pertain to suctioning a patient's airway except:
Limit suctioning to 10 seconds at a time
Use personal protective equipment while suctioning
Remove the rigid tip or catheter and use large bore suction tubing if copious, thick secretions or vomiting are present
Administer oxygen to the patient during suctioning
It is impossible to administer oxygen to a patient who is being suctioned, therefore it is important that suctioning is done quickly and efficiently so that an airway can be inserted and oxygen can be administered to a patient who needs it. It is reasonable to use large bore suction tubing if copious, thick secretions or vomiting are present. It is always important to use appropriate PPE.
While managing a 20 year old male patient who has been in a car accident, he becomes unresponsive. Which technique would you be unlikely to use?
insert an OPA
Jaw thrust maneuver
Head tilt-chin lift
It is inappropriate to use the head tilt-chin lift maneuver in a patient who has been in a traumatic accident as it could lead to spinal injury. All other techniques mentioned are appropriate in the management of an unconscious, traumatic patient
A 50 year old female patient is found lying unconscious on the floor of her home. After manually opening the patient's airway, you use an OPA to maintain the patient's airway. You decide on which size of OPA to use by measuring from the patient's to their .
Crook of the mouth, ear lobe
Tip of the nose, ear lobe
Center of mouth, ear hole
Crook of the mouth, jaw bone
The correct way to measure an appropriate size of OPA is from the patient's cook of their mouth to their ear lobe
You are managing a 23 year old male patient who has been stabbed in the chest. Their ability to breathe is jeopardized because:
Air rushes in through the stab wound, making the negative pressure necessary for inhalation impossible to create.
Air rushes in through the stab wound, making the positive pressure necessary for exhalation impossible to create
Air rushes in through the stab wound, making the negative pressure necessary for exhalation impossible to create
The patient's ability to breath is not jeopardized.
The patient suffering from a stab wound to the chest has their ability to breathe jeopardized by air rushing in through the stab wound, making the negative pressure necessary for inhalation impossible to create. The positive pressure within the chest necessary for exhalation would still be possible.
A conscious patient with a history of COPD is experiencing respiratory distress on room air. Ventilations are at a normal rate and rhythm and the airway is open and easily maintained by the patient. What is the BEST way to insure the patient is adequately receiving enough oxygen?
Via a non-rebreather mask
Via a partial non-rebreather mask
Via Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
Via a Venturi mask
The best way to insure the patient is adequately receiving enough oxygen is via a non-rebreather mask, because the reservoir bag allows the patient to breath in 100% of the oxygen administered. A partial non-rebreather and a venture mask would decrease the percentage of oxygen the patient inhales. Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation is unnecessary since the patient is already able to breathe.
A 9 year old female patient states, "I cannot catch my breath." What is the first thing you, as an EMT should do?
Ask the patient if they have an inhaler and assist them in administering it
Ask to borrow your partners Albuterol inhaler and administer it
Apply a non-rebreather mask to the patient and administer oxygen at a flow rate of 15 L/min
Nothing, because the patient's parents are not in the area and you cannot administer care without their permission.
As an EMT, you should ask the patient if they have an inhaler and assist them in administering it. Inhalers can only be administered by EMT's if the patient in respiratory distress has a prescription for an albuterol inhaler. If the patient did not have a prescription for an inhaler or their inhaler with them the next step would be to administer oxygen via non-rebreather mask. Finally, as an EMT you may provide care to a minor based on implied consent in a life-threating emergency.
Which of the following is not a consequence of over exposure to a high concentration of oxygen?
Infant eye damage
Air sac collapse
Spontaneous pneumothorax is not a consequence of over exposure to a high concentration of oxygen, but rather an acute condition that results in the collapse of a lung. Infant eye damage, air sac collapse, and respiratory arrest are all possible consequences of over exposure to high-concentration oxygen; however they are all extremely rare in the field.
A 1 year old male patient is in respiratory arrest and cyanotic. As an EMT you should:
Wait for a parents permission before providing car
Insure an open airway and administer high flow rate oxygen
Insure an open airway but do not administer oxygen due to the risk of infant eye damage
Insure an open airway, ventilate the patient at a rate of 10 breaths per minute, and administer high flow rate oxygen.
You should treat a cyanotic, infant in respiratory distress by insuring an open airway, ventilating the patient at a rate of 10 breaths per minute, and administering high flow rate oxygen. You do not need the parents' permission to provide care since the patient is experiencing a life threating condition based on implied consent. Ventilating the patient is necessary since he is in respiratory arrest and infant eye damage is not a risk that merits withholding oxygen from a patient in respiratory arrest.
A 50 year old male patient in respiratory distress notes a sharp pain in the center of their chest upon inhalation, reports a swollen and painful left lower leg, and his wife tells you they have just returned from the airport after a vacation to Europe. What is the best field diagnosis for this patient?
The best field diagnosis for this patient is pulmonary embolism. All three of the symptoms reported are associated with pulmonary embolism (sharp central chest pain, possible DVT in left leg, and long term immobilization).This patient should be rapidly transported to the most appropriate emergency facility.
In which situation is the use of a Flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device (FORPVD) contradicted?
In a patient without a suspected spine injury
In a patient with a suspected spine injury
In a child or infant
In a geriatric patient
The use of the FROPVD, a manually triggered ventilator, is contradicted in pediatric parents unless you have a pediatric unit and have been trained it its use by your medical direction.
As an EMT it is beyond your scope of practice to:
Assist in the blind insertion of a laryngotracheal device
Prepare a patient for intubation
Ventilate a patient who has been intubated
Preform an emergency intubation
As an EMT it is beyond your scope to perform an emergency intubation. It is within your scope however to assist in the blind insertion of a layngotracheal device, such as a King LT ™ or Combitube ® , prepare a patient for intubation, and ventilate a patient who has been intubated.
You are preforming ventilations for an unconscious patient in the back of an ambulance with a bag-valve mask and the assistance of your partner. An OPA has been inserted, oxygen is being provided at a rate of 15L/min, and your ventilations are causing the patient's chest to rise equally, bilaterally at a rate of 20 breaths per minute. Suddenly your patient begins to gag on the OPA, what should you do?
Remove the OPA and place it the waste basket in the back of the rig, maintain a clear airway, insert an NPA, and continue ventilating the patient
Remove the OPA and keep it safe in case the patient becomes unconscious again, maintain a clear airway, insert an NPA, and continue ventilating the patient
Remove the OPA and place it the waste basket in the back of the rig, maintain a clear airway, insert an NPA, and cease ventilating the patient
Remove the OPA and keep it safe in case the patient becomes unconscious again, maintain a clear airway, insert an NPA, and cease ventilating the patient
In this situation you should remove the OPA and keep it safe in case the patient becomes unconscious again, insert an NPA, and continue ventilating the patient. The OPA should not be discarded in the case that the patient was to go unconscious again, and ventilations should be continued after a clear and open airway is secured.
You arrive on the scene of a reported assault, where a 19 year old male has been beaten with a bat. After confirming that the scene is safe, you find the patient unresponsive, apneic, bleeding into the airway, with white milky fluid leaking from his ears. What is your first priority in the care of this patient?
Apply a C-collar and have your partner maintain stabilization of the cervical spine
Ventilate using a bag-valve mask with the assistance of your partner
Suction the airway
Provide high flow oxygen via nonrebreather mask
In this situation, you should suction the airway first, and then ventilate using a bag-valve mask with high flow oxygen attached. Once the patient is ready to be transported, then he should be properly immobilized using a C-collar and backboard.
A patient is breathing normally with a tidal volume of 500mL at a rate of 14 breaths per minute. What is this patient's minute volume?
This patient's minute volume is 7,000mL. Minute volume is calculated by multiplying tidal volume by respiration rate (500mL x 14 breaths per minute= 7,000mL).
You are treating a 3 year old female patient with known asthma and a severe allergy to shellfish. She is experiencing shortness of breath and you can hear a high pitched sound every time she exhales. What is the appropriate field diagnosis and action?
Anaphylaxis; administer prescribed epinephrine auto-injector
Acute asthma attack; administer prescribed epinephrine auto-injector
Anaphylaxis; administer prescribed albuterol inhaler
Acute asthma attack; administer prescribed albuterol inhaler
The most likely field diagnosis for this patient is an acute asthma attack and the most appropriate action is to administer an albuterol inhaler that has been prescribed to the patient. Stridor is a high pitched sound heard on exhalation that indicates an obstruction in the upper airway. In a pediatric patient with known asthma and severe allergies, it is likely that the patient would have been prescribed both an epinephrine auto injector as well as an albuterol inhaler, therefore it is important to know the differences between each diseases symptoms, so that you know what the most reasonable action to take in caring for the patient.
A 30 year old female fell from a tree trying to retrieve a kitten. She is ANO x4 and there are no immediate life threats, however upon assessment of her rib cage and auscultation of her chest you realize the part of the chest is moving in the opposite direction as the rest of the chest and you hear crackling under the skin. These two findings indicate a significant mechanism of injury and are called:
Paradoxical motion and congestive heart failure
Paradoxical motion and rhonchi
Paradoxical motion and subcutaneous emphysema
Flail chest and subcutaneous rhonchi
The two findings in this case indicate paradoxical motion and subcutaneous emphysema. Paradoxical motion is the term used to describe when a segment of the chest moves in the opposite direction as the rest of it, the flail segment. Subcutaneous emphysema is audible crackles beneath the skin upon auscultation.
A tracheostomy mask is a device that is used to provide oxygen to a patient with a stoma and it provides:
8-10L of oxygen per minute
12-15L of oxygen per minute
6-7L of oxygen per minute
1-6L of oxygen per minute
A tracheostomy mask provides 8-10L of oxygen per minute.
On most ambulances, oxygen is the only drug on board. Oxygen tanks come in various sizes, one of which is and "M cylinder," this tank contains 3,000L of oxygen. How many minutes will this tank last if it has a pressure of 1,000psi and a flow rate of 15L/minute?
This tank will last 83.2 minutes, because [(1,000psi-200psi) x 1.56]/15L/min= 83.2. 200psi is safe residual pressure and 1.56 is the cylinder constant for an M cylinder.
Other Quizlet sets
Earnings per Share
Chapter 23: review questions
SOR yr 12 Religious Expressions In Australia- 1945…