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PT CHP 4-6
Terms in this set (73)
a state of having mixed feelings about a change; arguing both for and against change simultaneously
a communication style in which the personal trainer leads, tells, and decides; the personal trainer is the main player and the client is a passive player. Triggers the "righting reflex"
a communication style in which the personal trainer helps to motivate, encourage, support, and assist a client in making a change; the personal trainer is engaged but the client is the main player
the tendency to give advice, push recommendations, and offer solutions; makes sustainable behavior change less likely for a client who is ambivalent about change
the process of acquiring and improving motor skills
what are the stages of the client-personal trainer relationship
rapport, investigation, planning, action
which stage of the client-personal trainer relationship is characterized by discussions about the clients health, fitness, and lifestyle?
what two skills can a personal trainer apply during the investigation stage to understand his or her client and elicit as much helpful information as possible while uncovering a clients motivation
active listening and motivational interviewing
describe what takes place during the planning and action stages of the client- personal trainer relationship
planning stage the personal trainer designs an exercise program in partnership with the client. Action stage the client is ready to begin exercising
in which stage should a personal trainer implement the "tell, show, do" teaching technique?
what are the 3 stages of motor learning
cognitive, associative, autonomous
cognitive stage of learning is
the first stage of learning a motor skill when performers make many gross errors and have extremely variable performance
Associative stage of learning
The second stage of learning a motor skill, when performers have mastered the fundamentals and can concentrate on skill refinement.
Autonomous stage of learning
The third stage of learning a motor skill, when the skill has become habitual or automatic for the performer.
what are the 4 key components of the "spirit" of motivational interviewing
collaboration, acceptance, compassion, and evocation
What is the key aspect of motivational interviewing
(OARS) offering affirmations, reflective listening, and summarizing
What are the stages of the client-personal trainer relationship
action, planning, investigation, rapport
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)
acute heart attack; acute obstruction of a coronary artery
sudden cardiac death
results from a sudden change in the rhythm of the heart usually caused by heart rhythms that are to fast. This condition is also called cardiac arrest
a condition of episodes of severe chest pain due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium
blockage of blood to the heart muscle
ability to breathe only in an upright position
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Refers to attacks of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night. It usually awakens the person from sleep, and may be quite frightening.
"Passing out", loss of consciousness or fainting
puffy swelling of tissue from the accumulation of fluid
Feeling a heart-racing, pounding, or fluttering sensation in the chest
Abnormally rapid heartbeat
pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest
The new health-screening process is based on what three factors?
individuals current level of physical activity
diagnosed cardiovascular, metabolic, or renal disease and signs/ presence
desired exercise intensity
The new health-screening process is designed to identify what three categories of individuals?
who should receive medical clearance
those with clinically significant disease
those with medical conditions that may require exclusion from exercise programs
Preparticipation health screening for individuals wanting to initiate an exercise program may be conducted using which document as a self-guided screening tool?`
physical activity readiness questionnaire for everyone
The risk of exercise-related acute myocardial infraction and sudden cardia death is highest among individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease who
perform a level of physical activity to which they are not accustomed
Beta Blockers block beta-adrenergic and
limit sympathetic nervous system stimulation
calcium channel blockers do what?
lower blood pressure
for what condition are diuretics usually prescribed?
high blood pressure
The preparticipation guidelines from the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) are designed too
remove any unnecessary barriers to becoming more physically active
The PAR-Q+ is evidence-based and was developed with a goal of
reducing unnecessary barriers to exercise
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
lower blood pressure by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I (an inactive enzyme) to angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor)
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
Block angiotensin II receptors which limit vasoconstriction, stimulation of vascular system.
medications administered to increase urine secretion in order to rid the body of excess water and salt
a type of unsaturated fat (liquid at room temp) that has one open spot on the fatty acid for the addition of a hydrogen atom (oleic acid in olive oil)
a type of unsaturated fat (liquid at room temp) that has 2 or more sports on the fatty acid available for hydrogen (corn, safflower and soybean)
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
transports cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver and small intestine to cells and tissues. High levels may cause atherosclerosis.
systolic blood pressure
the pressure created when the heart contracts and forces blood out into the arteries
Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP)
The pressure in the arteries during the relaxation phase (diastole) of the cardiac cycle; indicative of total peripheral resistance.
Any food or drug that contains any substance that will reduce its quality or strength below minimum standards.
Phosphagen Energy System
Stores of high-energy phosphates
Creatine phosphate (CP)
Also known as:
Immediate energy system
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
compound used by cells to store and release energy
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
the form of endoplasmic reticulum where calcium is stored to be used for muscle activation located in striated muscle fibers
a decrease in muscle PH (below 7) caused by the accumulation of proton in a muscle cell.
the breakdown of glucose or of its storage from glygogen
the ability of muscles to neutralize the acid that accumulate in them during high intensity-exercise, thus delaying the onset of fatigue
skeletal muscle milieu
the biochemical substance that make up the setting in which skeletal muscles are located
is is ACE's position that personal trainers can and should share what type of nutrition information with their clients?
general nonmedical nutrition info
an individuals personal trainer's scope of practice related to nutrition is determined by what
state policies and regulations, education, and experience
what are the five key guidelines contained within the Dietary Guidelines
-follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan
-focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount
-limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake
-shift to healthier food and beverage choices
support healthy eating patterns for all
Define the two main goals of a pre-exercise snack
helps increase glucose availability near the end of a long duration workout and helps to decrease exercise-induced protein catabolism
on the day of the event, an athlete should aim to eat a meal how many hours before the event?
Refueling should begin within _____ after exercise
what are the three healthy eating patterns discussed at most length in the Dietary Guidelines?
-Healthy US-Style eating pattern
-healthy Mediterranean-style eating pattern
-healthy vegetarian eating pattern
The healthy US style eating pattern is based no what
based on the types and proportions of foods Americans typically consume, but nutrient-dense forms and appropriate amounts.
Healthy Mediterranean-Style Eating Pattern based on
- more fruits and seafood
- less dairy
Healthy Vegetarian Eating Pattern based on
-legumes, nuts, and seeds and hole grains increased
benefit of fueling during exercise
is to provide the body with the essential nutrients needed by muscle cells and to maintain optimal blood glucose levels
benefit of post exercise replenishment
replenish glycogen stores and facilitate muscle repair
dinking to much plain water-out of fear of not drinking enough- could lead to what
what is the ratio for hydrating while exercising
1:1 )consume the same amount of fluid as they lose in sweat
an essential substance for the phosphagen energy system and involved in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration during high-intensity exercise is what
what promotes enhanced sodium/ potassium pump activity, greater calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and increased fat oxidation/ glycogen sparing?
what are the three varieties of whey?
whey protein powered
whey protein concentrate
whey protein isolate
whats the drawback from sodium bicarbonate
can cause gastrointestinal distress with ingestion
this supplementation might simulate protein synthesis and thereby promote enhanced muscular performance
this supplementation may increase exercise performance
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