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KLA Conference class
Terms in this set (82)
What CFR deals with safety?
Employee right to know
Why do we need to know the chemical hazards and lab safety in the lab?
To prevent accidents
Most effective way to prevent accidents?
What is CHO?
Chemical hygiene officer
responsible for chemical hygiene policies, PPE, spill kit, training
What is one of the most frequents lab injuries a result of?
Components of fire and explosion
How much oxygen must be present in order for a fire to start?
Oxidizers must never be allowed to come in contact with ______________ or any other __________________ materials
Class A fire extinguisher
wood, textile, paper, etc
Class B fire extinguisher
Flammable liquids and gases
A class C fire extinguisher is used to fight what kind of fire?
a. Flammable liquid fire
b. Paper fire
c. Electrical fire
d. Wood fire
Energized electrical equipment and oil (CO2)
A class D fire extinguisher is used to fight what kind of fire?
a. Flammable liquid fire
b. Flammable metals fire
c. Electrical fire
d. Wood fire
A CO2 fire extinguisher is used for which type of fire?
Electrical and oil , extringuishes by removing oxygen
What banned the used of Halon extinguishers?
Montreal protocol- banned the use of Ozone depleting substances. Halon is a CFC
What damages or interfere with cell metabolism?
The best protection against eye injuries is
wear safety glasses
strong bases include
ammonia, potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide
strong acids include
nitric, chromic, hydrofluoric
Oxidizing agents include
* is a very strong oxidizer. has a special hood that must be used
Most common route of chemical exposure
Most common route of biological exposure
4 Routes of entry are
inhalation, ingestion, absorption, and injection
What type of gloves are used for organic solvent extraction?
How long must you rinse if there is a chemical exposure?
15 minutes, eye wash or shower
RCRA waste characteristics
Ignitability=D001 = flashpoint <60C or 140F
Corrosivity=D002=pH<2 or >12.5
Reactivity=D003=material is unstable and reacts violently with water
TCLP toxicity=D004= is toxic
How often must SDS be reviewed and updated?
Threshold limit value-time weighted average
immediately dangerous to life and health- get out within 30 minutes
threshold limit value; three categories: TWA, STE:, TLV-C
STEL=short term exposure limit= 15min
Flammable solvents must be stored in
an NFPA approved cabinet
With a partially closed sash, the air flow through the hood should be what rate?
30m/min; should be monitored monthly
How many air exchanges should be produced per hour by a fume hood?
All microbiological waste must be autoclaved at _______ degrees Celsius at ______________PSI for at least ______________minutes.
121 degrees C
Ways to minimize waste include
In the event of an extreme emergency, you should:
evacuate first, and notify the authorities second
When accidents or spills occur, you should:
notify your supervisor first, then contain and clean up the spill
What is a confined space?
Any enclosed space big enough that a person can enter and conduct assigned work; limited access, not designated for continuous occupancy and has one of the following traits: hazardous atmosphere, engulfment hazard, entrapment, asphyxiation or other safety or health concerns
What oxygen content must be met in confined spaces?
Gas comparisons to air: methane, CO, H2S
Methane is lighter than air
Carbon Monoxide is the same as air
Hydrogen sulfide is lighter than air
Entry in confined space can be considered
any part of your body passing through the opening
What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection?
Sterilization kills everything; disinfection is the selective destruction or inactivation of pathogenic organisms
What are three main categories of pathogens?
bacteria, viruses, intestinal parasites
free chlorine or residue
amount of chlorine remaining after the chlorine demand is met
Addition of chlorine to water or wastewater until the chlorine demand has been satisfied. At this point, further additions of chlorine will result in a free chlorine residual.
HOCl; most effective form of chlorine for disinfection
availability is highest at pH 6.5 and decreases the higher the pH rises
Factors affecting disinfection
temp: faster at high temps, but also dissipates into the atmosphere faster
turbidity: 1.0NTU or less - most bacteria is removed
organic matter: hinders disinfection, may created harmful byproducts
Inorganic matter: lowers disinfection rates
reducing agents: demands must be met before disinfection can occur; ex H2S, nitrite; react with chlorine to form THMs.
microorganism: more means more dis. is needed
removal process- coagulation (90% of pathogens removed), sedimentation, filtration, disinfection
What's the difference between the two types of color?
true color cannot be filtered out. Apparent color includes dissolved material and can be filtered out.
How does true color affect turbidity?
lowers turbidity (NTU) by scattering light
Causes of color include
metallic ions or iron/manganese
humus and peat materials
Sampling and Hold time for color analysis, and why?
Collect in glass bottles with TFE-lined cap and zero head space.
24 hours at 6 degrees C because biological and chemical changes may take place in stored samples
Sample should be tested at 60 degrees C
Measured in TONs; threshold odor number
What do you report along with color analysis?
test method and pH of sample
Taste and odor problems can be the result of
natural or manmade conditions
Natural causes of taste and odor problems may include
biological growth: cells die and rupture, by product of microbe maturation, environmental conditions
Man-made taste and odor sources may include:
municipal wastewater, industrial waste, chemical spills, ag wastes, plumbing
How can you treat for taste and odor problems
oxidation: chlorine potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide, and ozone
adsorption: activated carbon
optimization of treatment process: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and stabilization
Given molarity of CaOH is 0.00001 M, what is the pH?
=-(-5) = 5
pOH + pH = 14
therefore pH =14- pOH
pH = 14-5 = 9
note: work this way given base molarity; use -log[H+] given acid molarity like HCl
liquids which carry an electric current
refers to the ability of materials to carry an electric current.
Pure water has a ____________ conductivity and _________________ resistivity because there are no impurities.
Total Dissolved solids measurement
Filter sample through 0.45 micron membrane, evaporate the filtered water at 180 degrees C and weigh the residue.
High quality reagent grade water should have a conductivity of ________megaohms or resistance of _______________ micrmhos/cm at 25 degrees C.
air bubbles: scatter light
true color absorbs light
extreme temperatures steam up or frosts
What are the primary standards for turbidity?
formazin or styrene divinyalbenze polymer
How often are standardizations done for turbidity?
quarterly or when secondary standards differ at greater than 5%
Total metals sample collection
plastic container or clean glass container rinsed with reagent grade water and, preserved with HNO3 to pH less than 2
If looking for boron, use plastic bottle
Most have a hold time of 6 months
Mercury cold vapor method sampling and hold time
plastic or glass, HNO3 to pH <2, 6degrees C
hold time 28 days
mercury low level; clean hands, dirty hands
How much sodium thiosulfate should be added to each 120mL bottle?
0.1 mL of 3% sodium thiosulfate
Total coliform and ecoli hold times
30 hours, 6 hours
What is the purpose of preliminary distillation? (like for ammonia nitrogen tests?)
to remove interferences
what is the most stable form of nitrogen in water?
COD is used to estimate the amount of______________________________________
organic matter in wastewater ; bug food
COD is a measurement of the oxygen equivalent of the materials present in wastewater that can be
oxidized by a strong chemical; dichromate is the oxidant
BOD determines the amount of ________ _______________ in wastewater by measuring the oxygen consumed by _________________________
organic material; microorganisms
What are the catalyst and chloride compensator for COD
Silver sulfate is the catalyst
Mercuric sulfate is the chloride compensator
What is the primary interference for COD tests?
chloride, hence the chloride compensator
turbidity or color can be an interference as well; use titrimetric method if they are present
What is the standard that is used for BOD tests?
GGA=glucose glutamic acid
Oil and grease is a __________________-____________________ method performed using sodium sulfate crystals to remove residual water from the organic extraction fluid.
BOD samples must have ________________ removed using sodium thiosulfate or sodium bisulfite
BOD incubators should be set at
20 degrees C +/- 1 degree
This is a bioassay technique used to asses the relative strength of a waste
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