26 terms

Civil and criminal law

Mar bury vs. Madison, Brown vs. Board of Education
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Miranda vs. Arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
common law
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
criminal law
A law that defines crimes against the public order.
statutes
laws enacted by state and federal legislatures
precedent
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
bail
A sum of money used as a security deposit to ensure that an accused person returns for his or her trial
Plaintiff
A person or party filing a lawsuit
Defendant
An individual or group being sued or charged with a crime.
Felonies
A serious criminal offense punishable by a prison sentence of more than one year
Libel
(n.) a written statement that unfairly or falsely harms the reputation of the person about whom it is made; (v.) to write or publish such a statement
Slander
False charges and malicious oral statements about someone
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
bill of attainder
A legislative act finding a person guilty of treason or felony without a trial
Bench trial
A trial in which the judge alone hears the case
Plea Bargain
(criminal law) a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge
hung Jury
A jury that cannot agree on a verdict
Constitutional law
Establishes and defines the community and the competent authority which cares for it
Appeal
(law) a legal proceeding in which the appellant resorts to a higher court for the purpose of obtaining a review of a lower court decision and a reversal of the lower court's judgment or the granting of a new trial
Grand jury
A group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime.
Search Warrant
A court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect's home or business and take specific items as evidence
Double Jeopardy
Being tried twice for the same crime
Acquittal
a judgment of not guilty
Judicial Review
Marbury v. Madison
Torts
A person is under a legal duty to act as an ordinary, prudent, reasonable person, which presumes that such person will take precautions against creating unreasonable risks of injury to other persons.
Hammurabi code
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties.
Misdemeanors
A relatively minor offense such as vandalism or stealing inexpensive items