AP Human Geography Unit 10, Agriculture
Terms in this set (45)
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Prepare and use land for crops or gardening.
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season. (any plant cultivated by people.)
Use of river segments or artificial bodies of water such as ponds for the raising and harvesting of food products including fish, shellfish, and seaweed.
Use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture & DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production.
A crop grown for sale rather than for subsistence.
The production of food primarily for sale off the farm. (found in MDCs)
A sequential process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities and finially distribute them to customers.
Plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
The occupation of producing milk products.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas.
Selective growing or breeding of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans.
Harvesting twice a year from the same year.
extensive subsistence agriculture
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Inactive, not in use.
a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market.
Genetically modified organism made when DNA is removed from one organism and placed within the DNA of what can be a very different organism.
The invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970s and 1980s.
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers-and tree crops from the commercial mediterranean farming.
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
the clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
crops that are considered nonessential -coffee, tea, tobacco
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually.
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
A from of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals.
A large farm that specializes in one or two crops.
prime agricultural land
The most productive farmland.
The commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area.
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
The clearing of fields by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
The reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization.
A government payment that supports a business or market
The production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer's family. (found in LDCs)
lines laid out by surveyors prior to the settlement of an area
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
The reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting the stem and dividing the roots.
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