Leishmania present three clinical pictures, cutaneous, visceral, and muco-cutaneous. Each of these are associated with their own genus and species. Name the genus-species associated with each clinical presentation.
What is a common name of cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Iraq?
Which cells are parasitized by leishmania?
Cells of the reticulo-endothelial system, macrophages.
True/False. Leishmania infections are easily diagnosed with a simple blood smear.
False. Traditional diagnosis has been Giemsa stained tissue smears, and skin scrapings.
True/False: Cattle and sheep are the reservoir hosts of Leishmaniasis.
False. Dogs and rodents are important reservoir hosts of Leishmania.
What is the name of the flagellated stage of the leishmania parasite that is injected when the vector takes a blood meal?
The promastigote (from mastix meaning whip - flagella in this case) is injected by the vector.
What is the name of the stage of the leishmania parasite that is taken up by macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system?
Amastigotes are found in the macrophages. (From mastix, meaning whip - flagella in this case). This form is without flagella thus the name amastigote - without whip or flagella.
If a soldier presents with a skin lesion that is difficult to heal, and the soldier has a travel history that includes a recent deployment to Iraq, what parasitic disease might you add to your differential diagnosis?
What would be the specimen of choice for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis?
Name the three clinical presentations of leishmania and the genus and species associated with each.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: one or morelesions following sandfly feeding; range in size and appearance over time; look like a volcano, with raised edge and central crater; develops scab, can be painful or painless; some have swollen glands near sores
Clinical manifestation of visceral leishmania
Visceral Leishmaniasis: manifests with fever, weight loss, enlarged spleen/liver (spleen larger than liver), some have swollen glands; blood tests may be abnormal (i.e. low RBC and WBC and platlets); can be opportunisitic infex of HIV