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Human A&P Chapters 3 and 4
Terms in this set (82)
With exception of red blood cells and sperm cells, which of the following is the same for all other cells within a human body?
How many cell are in the body? How many different types?
There are 37 trillion cells in the body, htere are at least 290 different types.
What unit of measurement are cells measured in?
Cell also vary in...
Shape from flattened epithelial ksin cells to long rod-like muscle cells.
What part of the cell dictates its function?
Cells with specialized characteristics are termed____.
What are the three major parts of the cell?
Cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm
Contains many small organs each known as an organelle, and liquid called the cytosol.
Specilized structures found in the cytoplasm of the cell are called _____.
What is only found in the ECF?
Glycoprotein, Cellular adhesion molecule, Flagella, and Cilia
What is found in the ICF (intracellular fluid)?
Mitochondria, Ribosomes, and Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is found in both the ECF and ICF?
Integral protein, Phospholipid bilayer, and secretory vesicles.
What does the cell membrane phospholipids consists of?
Hydrophillic heads and hydrophobic tails
What are membrane proteins?
Receptors and transporters.
What does cholesterol do for the cell in the cell membrane?
It maintains rigidity.
What do glycoproteins do?
They serve as ID tags for the cell.
Peripheral proteins that allow cells to bind to one another are called____.
Cellular adhesion molecules
Functions of the Microvilli
1. Used for absorption
2. Increases the surface area of the cell.
3. Contain the brush border enzymes of the intestines
Functions of the Cilia
1. Used to move fluids on outer surface of the cell
2. Utilizes rhythmic movement
3. Utilizes ATP for movement.
Release energy from food substances
Modifies and packages protein for transport and secretion
Contain enzymes necessary for digesting substances that enter the cell
Contain enzymes that catalyze metabolic reactions that release hydrogen peroxide
T or F? Some organelles move within the cell as part of their function.
Function of the Cell membrane
Controls passage of materials into and out of the cell
Function of Nuclear envelope
Controls passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm
Function of the Nucleolus
Site of ribosome synthesis
Function of Chromatin
Contains information for synthezing proteins
Function of the Centrosome
Helps distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell division
Composition of the Cell membrane
Composed of protein and a lipid bilayer
Composition of the Mitochondrion
Membranous sacs with interior partitions
Composition of the Golgi Apparatus
Group of flattened, membranous sacs
Composition of the Ribosome
Particles composed of protein and RNA molecules
Composition of Centrosome
Nonmembranous structure composed of two rodlike centrioles
1. Tiny rods
2. Composed of the protein actin
3. Provide cellular movement, as seen in muscle cells
1. Long slender tubes
2. Composed of the protein tubulin
3. Maintain cell shape
4. Found in cilia and flagellum
5. Form centrosome
What structure of the cytoskeleton is composed mostly of the protein actin and is associated with cell motility?
What is the site of ribosome production?
What allows for substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm?
Normal saline solution is ____ to the human blood cells.
A cell placed in a hypotonic solution will _____.
A _____ solution has a solute concentration higher than the solute concentration inside the cell.
Example of Passive Transport
-Movement with a concentration gradient
-Does not require cellular energy
Examples of Active transport
-Uses cellular energy
-Movement against a concentration gradient
Facts about Na+-K+ Pumps
-They are active forms of transport.
-They consume about half of your daily energy expenditure
-They move 2 molecules of K+ toward the ICF per cycle
-They are enzymes that hydrolyze ATP into ADP and Pi
Smaller molecules are forced through porous membranes down a pressure gradient.
Carrier molecules transport molecules from regions of low concentration to high concentration.
Molecules move from regions of higher concentration to regions of low concentration.
Movement of water molecules toward the solution with more impermeant solute.
With assistance of a carrier protein, molecules move from regions of high concentration to lower concentration.
Three stages of the Cell cycle
Interphase, Mitosis, and cytokinesis
The cell grows
the nucleus and its DNA divide into two equal parts
the cytoplasm divides
What is the physical basis for the "mitotic clock", which controls the number of divisions one cell can undertake?
T or F? All cells in the body divide at the same rate.
A __________ cell can divide into any cell type, whereas __________ cells can divide into many but not all cell types.
The process of specialization by a cell is called __________.
The directional movement of ions by facilitated diffusion through protein channels is determined by __________.
the electrochemical gradient of the ion being transported
Simple and facilitated diffusion differ because __________.
facilitated diffusion requires the presence of a transport protein within the plasma membrane, while simple diffusion does not
Almost all enzymes are what class or organic molecule?
What binds to the active site of an enzyme?
Using "E" for enzyme, "S" for substrate, and "P" for product, indicate the best representation of the mechanism of enzyme function.
E+S -> ES ->EP->E+P
What do the root words Co-, De-, Ana-, and Cata- mean in that order?
What happens during anabolism?
Dehydration synthesis, production of glycogen, and requires energy
What happens during catabolism?
Hydrolysis, oxidation of glucose, and releases energy
The term_____refers to the chemical reactions that involve the acquisition, storage, or release or energy within cells.
What is a cofactor?
Nonprotein molecule that must combine with some enzymes in order for them to become active.
Pathways of cellular respiration in order?
2. Citric acid cycle
3. Electron transport chain
1. Pyruvic acid as a product
2. Glucose as substrate
3. Produces NADH+H
4. Uses 2 ATP, produces 4 ATP
The citirc acid cycle:
1. Requires oxygen
2. Acetyl CoA enters pathway
3. Produces NADH+H
The electron transport chain:
1. Requires oxygen
2. Uses NADH+H
3. Produces 28 ATP
What are the end products of the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose?
6CO2,6H2O, 32 ATP
Three metabolic pathways are involved in the breakdown of glucose to CO2, H2O, and ATP. Of the three, which one occurs in the cytoplasm?
Occurs in mitochondria; products are 2 CO2 and 1 ATP per substrate molecule
Citric Acid cycle
Occurs in mitochondria; products are water and 26-28 ATP.
Electron transport chain
Occurs in cytoplasm; net products are 2 ATP and 2 pyruvic acid molecules
T or F?
Each mRNA molecule is used to produce one copy of a polypeptide molecule.
mRNA, once assembled, can be read by multiple ribosomes.
What occurs during the stage of protein synthesis called translation?
A polypeptide is built, based on mRNA base sequence.
What occurs during the phase of protein synthesis called transcription?
mRNA is produced from a DNA template.
By definition, factors such as certain chemicals or radiation that induce a change in DNA base order are called?
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