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KLA conference day 2
Terms in this set (38)
colloidal=1nm-1 micrometer (um)
dissolved solids < 2 um
suspended > 2 um
volatile-burns off at 550 degrees C
nonvolatile do not burn off at 550C
TDS is dried at what temperature?
180 +/- 2 C
What wavelength is used to measure orthophosphate?
dirty glassware is the primary cause of interference.
Arsenic will cause positive interference.
Hexavalent chromium and nitrite will cause results to be low.
Warning limits is _____ standard deviation(s) away and the control limit is ___________ standard deviation(s) away
2SD = warning
3 SD = control limit
Nitrite has a colorimetric method that uses an indicator to produce a __________________ (color) ____________ dye at a pH of 2-2.5 in the presence of nitrite.
reddish; azo dye
reduces nitrates to nitrites so that it can be read colorimetrically with the azo dye.
acidified infiltered water sample with acid digestion
sample has been filtered through 0.45micron membrane acid soaked in 0.5 N HCl or 1.0 N HNO3
unacidified sample that is retained on the 0.45 micron membrane
Conc of metals in solution after treatment of an unfiltered sample with hot dilute mineral acid
temperature calibration is not required as long as results can be replicated
Chemically altering the volatiles of either the analyte element or matrix constituents to minimize interferences
Smith-Hieftje background correction
background correction that is used in metal analysis
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
three steps involved in turning liquid sample into an atomic gas:
the liquid solvent is evaporated and the dry sample remains
the solid sample vaporizes to a gas
the compounds making up the sample are broken down into free atoms
converts liquids into an aerosol
Flame AA Spectroscopy
Nitrous-oxide/acetylene flame burns hotter and can get better atomization efficiencies and thus better detection limits.
mainly this gas combo is used for Al
Flame AA sensitivity can decrease due to __________.
acetone content in acetylene rising and causing errors,
Acetylene cylinders should be used up to a residual pressure of 7 bar or 100 PSI
Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
charring=remove other matrix constituents
atomization=analyte element is released to the gaseous phase
cleaning=residues in graphite tube removed at high temp
Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
for mercury; it is chemically reduced into free atomic state by using a strong reducing agent like stannous chloride or sodium borohydride in a closed reaction system.
Mercury atoms are carried in the gas stream through tubing connected to an absorption cell, which is placed in the light path of the AA spec.
Vent under a fume hood and vented outside of the building.
inductively coupled plasma method
used for metals analysis
coupled with mass spec
technique of choice for trace element analysis of natural waters, minerals, and rocks.
a method of separating chemicals to establish their quantities
for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition
typically helium, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, air
depends on the detector being used
column inlet that provides the means to introduce a sample into a continuous flow carrier gas
depend on volatility
Compounds elute at different times, so how long it takes, is how long it is held, or retained.
Comparison of these retention times results in the analytical data telling what compound is present. (Time that it elutes corresponds to analyte)
Purge and trap system
an inert gas is bubbled through an aqueous sample causing insoluble volatile chemicals to be purged from the matrix. Volatiles are trapped on column, then heated and volatiles are directed into the carrier gas stream.
usually hooked up to the S/SL port
types of injectors
Detectors are determined by
what it is sensitive for
Flame ionization detector (FID) are primarily sensitive to
ECD-electron capture detector uses a ____
radioactive beta particle (electron)
ECD are sensitive to
breaks molecules into ionized fragments and detects fragments using their mass to charge ratio
qualitative vs quantitative analysis
qualitative-like being able to tell what analytes are present-more descriptive
: ex: when peak shows up (time) determines what analyte is present
quantitative- will tell how much of that analyte is present--more numerical
: ex: area under the curve determines the AMOUNT of the analyte the elutes at that time
internal standard/chemical added that should be recovered: quality check
Recommended textbook explanations
Matta, Staley, Waterman, Wilbraham
Physical Science Concepts In Action
Frank, Wysession, Yancopoulos
Student Solutions Guide for Zumdahl's Chemistry
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KLA Conference class