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Social Science
Psychology
PSYC 250 - Final review
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Terms in this set (99)
Which of the following is not an empirical question?
Can prayer reduce blood pressure?
Are prayers regularly answered by God?
Do college seniors pray for different things than college freshman?
None of these are empirical
Are prayers regularly answered by god
Why is it important for all psychologists to be familiar with research methods?
They might need them to perform an evaluation to determine the effectiveness of an agency's program.
They might need to critically evaluate the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of some new clinical treatment for depression.
Both.
None.
Both
Even if you never get involved in research after taking the research methods course, why is taking the course valuable?
It helps you become better at thinking critically about research and research claims
According to Thomas Kuhn, it is generally a good thing for scientists to hang on to their pet theories tenaciously. Why?
by vigorously advocating their theory, it won't be abandoned without a thorough test
Which of the following attributes of scientific thinking is most likely to confuse and frustrate the general public?
The desire for objectivity
The emphasis of supporting claims with data
The recognition that conclusions are tentative
The reliance on empirical questions
The recognition that conclusions are tentative
As psychologist use the term, determinism means that
Events can be predicted with greater than chance probability
The problem with believing that "experience is the best teacher" is that
Our experiences are likely to be limited and influenced by bias
A research methods course differs from a course in developmental psychology by emphasizing
Process over content
To be data driven is to
Insist on empirical support for assertions
Which of the following is true about relying on authority as a way of searching for the truth?
The authority could be wrong
It is a problem for scientists, but not for nonscientists
It is almost certain that the basis for the authority's knowledge is subjective
People should discover things for themselves, and never believe authorities
The authority could be wrong
Which of the following is true about an IRB?
Its approval is not needed for research conducted outside a laboratory
It always judges the methodological soundness of studies
Its members include nonscientists
Its decisions can be appealed to the APA ethics board
Its members include nonscientists
In a study testing prisoners, special care must be taken to insure that
They don't feel coerced into participating
In terms of the current ethics code, Milgram's obedience research is most questionable with respect to which issue?
Allowing participants to quit at any time in the procedure
The ___________ was a result of a US congressional commission, and it contains three basic principles for research with human participants: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice
Belmont report
If a researcher is concerned about _______, then the researcher may ask participants to not disclose any information to others until the study is completed.
participant crosstalk
Why did Gibson and Walk (1960) study animals in the visual cliff studies?
many animals are fully mobile within hours after birth
the animals could be raised in visual isolation
studying animals allowed them to control for perceptual experience
all of the above
all of the above
The purpose of Watson and Rayner's Little Albert study was to
determine if emotional responses could be conditions.
What does the APA ethics code for animal research have in common with the code for human research?
both require a need to balance scientific merit and potential harm to subjects.
In the original Milgram obedience experiment, the research participants played the role of
teacher
At a university or college, the Institutional Review Board is a university or college committee that
evaluates the ethical soundness of research proposals.
A researcher is measuring aggression. Which of the following is most clearly inadequate as an operational definition of the term?
Shocking a competitor.
Honking one's horn at an intersection for more than two seconds.
Attempting to harm someone.
Choosing a button which makes it difficult for another subject to complete a task.
Attempting to harm someone.
Which of the following would be an example of a research project began as the result of a serendipitous event?
Andy notices that complete strangers who take the same train to work every day begin to greet each other at the station. Andy wonders why.
Andy suspects Bill of fraud, so Andy replicates Bill's work.
Andy comes across an interesting study and does a partial replication and extension of that work.
Andy has an equipment malfunction and notices some interesting behavior that leads to a series of studies.
Andy has an equipment malfunction and notices some interesting behavior that leads to a series of studies.
Two researchers with two completely different operational definitions for aggression nonetheless produce the same result — frustration leads to aggression. This outcome is referred to as
converging operations.
Anxiety is not observed directly but is inferred from certain behaviors. That is, anxiety is an example of
a construct
Which of the following were found to be Questionable Research Practices (QRP's) by John, Loewenstein, and Prelec (2012)?
Failing to report all dependent measures.
Selectively reporting studies that "worked".
Claiming to have predicted an unexpected finding.
All of the above.
all of the above
A theory that has the minimum of constructs and assumptions, yet adequately summarizes and organizes information, is said to be a(n) ________ theory.
parsimonious
A prediction is made from a theory and the results are just as predicted. What can be concluded about the theory?
It has been inductively supported.
Which of the following distinguishes a good theory from a bad one?
The good theory can be proven true.
The good theory can explain all possible research outcomes.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
none of the above
Compared to field research, what is an advantage of laboratory research?
it allows for experimental realism
Operationa definitions
force researchers to be clear about defining measures used in their studies.
To reason deductively is to
reason from the general principle to the specific event.
Qualitative research is to quantitative research as _______ is to _______.
analytic narrative; inferential analysis
According to Karl Popper, science proceeds by
creating theories and trying to falsify them.
Hypotheses are
reasonable predictions about what should occur under specific circumstances.
Participants are asked to memorize three different lists of words. The lists are presented at three different presentation speeds. How would you classify this study?
basic research
Which of the following is an example of a construct?
entering arm #3 of a radial maze
naming letters
social effectiveness
using fingers when adding
social effectiveness
Psychologists generally assume that most personality and IQ tests use a(n) _____ scale
interval
In the early reaction time research, reaction times for seemingly complex events were occasionally equal to the reaction times for simpler events. How could this have happened?
The simple additive model was inadequate.
The purpose of random sampling is to obtain a sample that is
representative of the population.
When considering a student's overall standing in a class (first, second, third, etc.), which measurement scale is being used?
ordinal
When should a stratified sample be used?
When idenifiable subgroups of the population are of interest.
The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that an interval scale
does not have a true zero point.
In a sequence of trials, an infant looks at a stimulus for 10 seconds, then 8, then 6, then 4. On the next trial, the infant looks for 12 seconds. What has occurred on this last trial?
The infant has noticed a change in the stimulus.
Which of the following is true about measures of behavior?
Measurement error can be eliminated by careful researchers.
They are more likely to be valid than reliable.
They are more likely to be reliable than valid.
They all include some degree of measurement error.
They all include some degree of measurement error.
A Type I error occurs when the researcher
rejects the null hypothesis when it is true.
When phrenologists assessed the trait of "destructiveness" by measuring skull contour, their measurements were
reliable but not valid.
If a personality test is able to produce results similar to results produced by other valid measures of personality, then we can say the test has good
concurrent validity.
Those who argue that psychologists know a great deal about college sophomores but very little about other groups are criticizing the ______ validity of psychological research.
external
For any experiment investigating the effect of X on Y,
X is the independent variable.
Y is the dependent variable.
both of the above.
none of the above.
both of the above
A researcher tests four different groups of participants. Each group is given a different dosage of caffeine, and reaction time is measured for each subject. Which of the following is true?
the independent variable has four levels
the independent variable is a subject variable
dosage level is the dependent variable
reaction time is an independent variable
the independent variable has four levels
For which of these empirical questions would a control group most clearly be needed?
Do laboratory-bred rats learn mazes faster than wild rats?
If participants are trying to solve problems, will they perform better in the morning or the evening?
Will a more attractive defendant be treated more leniently by a jury than a less attractive defendant?
If institutionalized elderly are given responsibility for meal planning, will it improve their psychological health?
If institutionalized elderly are given responsibility for meal planning, will it improve their psychological health?
Sometimes performance differences could be attributed to an independent variable or to some basic difference in the composition of the two groups involved. When this occurs, there is said to be a threat due to
selection
In a study assessing the effects of crowding on problem solving, participants solve anagrams in large or small rooms. In this case, the independent variable is
a situational variable.
When a confound exists,
there will be at least two different ways of interpreting the results.
After taking a personality test that differentiates introverts from extraverts, two groups are formed. Tested individually, introverted participants are given a series of problems to solve in a small (36 square feet) room, while extroverts are given the same problems in a larger room (81 square feet). Which of the following is true?
Introversion/extraversion is a manipulated independent variable.
Personality (introvert/extravert) is confounded with room size.
Room size is the dependent variable.
The independent variable is shyness.
Personality (introvert/extravert) is confounded with room size.
Between the administration of a pretest and a posttest, an event may occur that can affect the results of the study independent of the treatment program being evaluated. This threat to internal validity is called
history
In any experiment, the dependent variable is
some behavior being measured
Conclusions about cause and effect can be drawn in studies involving
instructional variables.
situational variables.
task variables.
all of the above.
all of the above
In a study comparing two sets of rankings, a researcher uses a statistical analysis designed for use with interval or ratio data. This study will have questionable
statistical conclusion validity.
What do random assignment and matching have in common?
they are both designed to create equivalent groups of participants
In a cross-sectional comparison of intelligence in people aged 20, 40, and 60, differences might be due to aging but they might also be due to the different rearing conditions experienced by participants. This latter interpretation illustrates a(n) _______ effect.
cohort
Compared to a cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study
has attrition as its major difficulty.
In _______, each subject volunteering for the study has an equal chance of being placed into group A or group B.
random assignment
In a study with three conditions in which participants are tested in each condition more than once, reverse counterbalancing would produce which of the following sequences?
Question options:
CABBCA
ACCBAB
ABCCBA
ABCABC
ABCCBA
Demand characteristics, and therefore subject bias, can be reduced by using
deception
For which of the following empirical questions would a within-subjects design be preferred?
Question options:
Is the Ponzo illusion stronger for those raised in a Western, industrialized cultures?
Who learns mazes more quickly, male or female rats?
Is the Ponzo illusion stronger with the parallel lines horizontal or vertical?
Do participants give harsher jail sentences to less attractive defendants?
Is the Ponzo illusion stronger with the parallel lines horizontal or vertical?
In a _____________ procedure, both participants and the experimenters do not know which condition is being tested, whereas in a _____________ procedure only the participants are unaware of which condition is being tested.
double-blind; single-blind
In a taste test comparing popcorn brands A, B, C, and D, the experimenter decides to use a Latin square for counterbalancing. Assuming that ten participants will be tested in each of the sequences used, how many people will be needed to complete the study?
40
Over a series of trials, participants experiencing one order of conditions might have an advantage over participants experiencing another order. These effects are called
carry-over effects
Sometimes a subject's behavior is affected by the mere knowledge that he or she is participating in an experiment. Historically, this has been termed the
Hawthorne effect
Creating equivalent groups is a design problem for
between-subjects designs.
When making a bar graph, the ____________ variable is plotted on the x-axis and the ___________ variable on the y-axis.
independent, dependent
There are three common measures of dispersion, the are the
range, variance and standard deviation.
When z scores are computed a distribution has a mean of ___ and standard deviation of ___.
0; 1
In a negatively skewed distribution, the __________ is less than the __________ which is less than the ___________.
mean, median, mode
A line graph is used instead of a bar graph when there is a _______________ variable on the x-axis.
continuous
The mean is the best measure of central tendency except in cases where
there are a few extreme scores in a sample.
If you're asked to choose favorite 5 songs, you're making what type of scale?
ordinal
The standard deviation is the square root of the
variance
Measures of central tendency
use one number to represent all the scores in a sample.
About ______ of scores fall between -2 and 2 standard deviations from the mean for a normal distribution.
95%
In order for Pearson's r to reflect a meaningful relationship, which of the following must be true?
The relationship must be linear.
If there is a strong correlation between variables A and B, what is the most likely explanation?
A is causing B.
B is causing A.
A and B are caused by C.
Could be any of the above.
Could be any of the above.
The sequence of operations to determine the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (Pearson' r) are
to make a scatterplot, compute z scores for the variables, cross multiply the z scores, sum the crossproducts, and divide by the sample size.
Which of the following would be likely to produce a negative correlation?
The relationship between college grades and time spent studying.
The relationship between college grades and high school grades.
The relationship between college grades and total TV watching time.
The relationship between college grades and parental IQs.
The relationship between college grades and total TV watching time.
In a normal distribution what approximate percentage of the scores fall within ±1 standard deviation of the mean?
68%
Which of the following correlations indicates the strongest relationship?
+.70
-.72
-.09
+1.21
-.72
The interquartile range (IQR) allows a researcher to
test groups of individuals who score differently on a particular measure.
The standard deviation of a standard normal distribution
is always equal to one.
We can use a normal distribution to determine someone's 'standing' relative to others because z-scores indicate
probabilities
If you are looking to see if one score is larger than expected by chance you're going to use a
one-tailed test
What is the logic behind testing the "null hypothesis" when we're trying to find out if a treatment has an effect?
We design studies to find effects, so we assume there's no effect without strong evidence.
There are several steps to hypothesis testing. Three of the statements below are correct, and one is not. Indicate which selection is NOT part of hypothesis testing.
Check the sample for representativeness.
Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis.
Look up the critical value to reject the null hypothesis based on your sample size.
Restate the research question as a research hypothesis.
Check the sample for representativeness.
In traditional null hypothesis testing, if the calculated z-score is 2.2 and the critical value in a one-tailed test is 2.33 we
fail to reject the null hypothesis.
Thinking about samples and poputlations, which terms belong together?
statistic, estimator
A sample of 10 students completes a speed of processing task. The goal is to compare their results to what we expect for that age group. The variance needs to be calculated witha denominator of
9
If you are calculating the variance of a sample, the denominator is
n - 1
There are certain 'magic numbers' for z-scores relating to probabilities and percentiles. Which one of these is such a number?
1.645
1.2
1.950
.05
1.645
The central limit theorem underlies much of our ability to draw conclusions from samples. One fact is that the means of samples are normally distributed _________________________________.
regardless of the shape of the population distribution of scores
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