Define a face-to-face group and what advantage does this group have compared to other groups
Groups that share a common goal in which they interact and influence each other to reach that goal or complete a task. The advantage is direct influence on one another because when people interact in a group, their thoughts, emotions, and actions tend to converge, becoming more and more alike
Compare and contrast attitudes and social norms.
Both are cognitive representations of appropriate ways of thinking, feeling, and acting in respone to social objects and events. They differ in that attitudes represent an individual's positive or negative evaluations, while norms reflect group evaluations of what is true or false
In what sort of cultures is conformity especially likely to occur?
Conformity is higly likely to occur in collectivist or interdependent cultures. However, conformity can also occur in individualistic cultures. It has also been studied that when those who belong to the individualistic cultures is reminded of their indvidualism actually conform more strongly to that norm, by conforming less
What is one key factor underlying all kinds of conformity?
expectation of agreement. Expecting others to see the world as we do.
Define informational influence and explain its relationship to a need for mastery.
When people privately conform because they believe a group's norms reflect reality. Because we believe the group has more knowledge than we do, therefore, conforming to the group increases our chance for accuracy.
Define normative influence and explain its relationship to a need for connectedness.
When members of a group conform to attain a postive and valued social identity and to win respect from other group members. This is related to connectedness because people' desire to be a valued member of a group is so strong that they adopt group norms whenever they indentify with a group.
Define intellective tasks and identify the need satisfied by conformity in such tasks.
When a group is faced with a task that has one verifiably correct solutions which involves the need for mastery.
Define judgmental and identify the need satisfied by conformity in such tasks.
Identify functions become more salient which require value-laden decsions about social and personal issues. The need for connectedness thus becomes more important than establishing mastery
What sort of people serve as a reference group for (a) intellective tasks and (b) judgmental tasks?
(a) Most people in who has the knowledge and skills to verify solutions and tasks that require a single answer
(b) Those who share smiliar values, atititudes, and relationships
Identify two differences in reactions to persuasive messages from in-group members and from out-group members. When is the impact of persuasive messages from in-group members strongest?
(1) If we think an in-group has the right qualifications for valid judgements, we are more likely to accept its views.
(2) When information is more relavanet and important to group memberships, they are processed more systematically than out-group members. When more highly members identify with the group and more closely and frequently the group interacts.
Under what conditions is group depolarization more likely than group polarization to occur?
When a compromise is made in which a groups views are evenly split.
Explain how superficial processing of other group members' views (a) satisfies both master and connectedness motives and (b) leads to group polarization.
(a) it encourages us to move toward, or even beyond the majority's view. Peole care about their membership in groups and they want to be the best possible member, naturally wanting to represent the group ideal and think of themselves as superior members
(b) minority positios shift to adopt majority consesus, while the majority moves even farther toward the extreme
Identify and explain four ways in which systematic processing of group members' views leads to group polarization.
(1) Majority arguments are more numerous: The greater the number of viewpionts, the more favorable arguements on tha position
(2) Majority arguments get more discussion: Shared viewpoints are likely to be discussed more than minority arguements.
(3) Majority arguments seem more compelling: several people making the same agreement
(4) Majority argumetns are presented more compellingly: majority arguements tend to be preserved with more confidence
Name two reasons why arguments from group majority members seem more compelling than arguments from group minority members.
(1) The greater the number of viewpionts, the more favorable arguements on tha position.
(2) shared viewpoints are likely to be discussed more than minority arguements.
(3) several people making the same agreement.
(4) majority arguements tend to be preserved with more confidence
Explain three ways in which a group consensus might produce flawed decisions.
(1) Consesus without consideration: unthinking reliance on consensus.
(2) consensus without independence: contamination.
(3) consensus without acceptance: public conformity
Explain the role of similarity among group members and differences among group members in group influence on decision making.
Similarity is needed so that agreement with others tells us about reality, while differences are needed so that it is unlkely that any other shared feature could bias everyone's judgement
Define pluralistic ignorance and explain its role in group consensus leading to flawed decision making.
When everyone publicly aheres to a norm that no one privately endorses, it plays a role in public conforming which increases pressure by fear, exhaustion, or the desire to please that people tend to deviate from reality
Identify and explain three causes of groupthink.
Causes of groupthink:
(1) No consideration of all available evidence.
(2) members views are not independent. (3) public conformity without acceptance
Identify and explain three remedies for groupthink.
Remedies for groupthink:
(1) playing devils advocate - having dissenting voices improves group problem solving.
(2) members can be intentionally selected for diversity - different people seeing the same things in different ways.
(3) the role of the leader should be minimized in favor of equally valued contributions from all members and voicing of doubts and rejections.
The tendency to overestimate others' agreement with one's own opinions, characteristics, and behaviors
False consensus effect
Those people accepted as an appropriate source of informtation for a judgement because they share the attributes relevant for making judgement
The process by which a group's initial average position becomes more extremefollowing group interaction
Group decision making that is impaired by the drive to reach consensus regardless of how the consensus is formed