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applaud or praise


the repetition of consonant sounds in words that are close to one another. Alliteration is an essential feature of Anglo-Saxon poetry; in most lines, two or three of the four stressed syllables alliterate (And with old woes new wail my dear time's waste)


to explain by indicating a cause


something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation


meanings, associations, or emotions that have come to be attached to a word


current or modern


composed of distinct or unlike elements or qualities


extreme in degree, strength, or size

King Hrothgar

king of the Danes in Beowulf whose kingdom is threatened by Grendel, the man-eating monster


a figurative, usually compound expression used in place of a name or noun, especially in Old English poetry (for example, storm of swords is a kenning for battle or whale-road is a kenning for the sea)

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