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Form of a gene


Both alleles are completely expressed.

crossing over

Homologous chromosomes exchange portions of the chromatids during meiosis


Cell with two sets of homologous chromosomes


Egg or sperm cell


Genetic makeup of a an organism


Cell with one set of homologous chromosomes


Having two different alleles for a particular gene


Chromosomes where one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent.


Having two identical alleles for a particular gene.


Offspring of crosses between parents with different traits

incomplete dominance

Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another.


The number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half.

multiple alleles

Gene that has more than two alleles


Physical characteristics of an organism

Polygenic traits

Trait controlled by two or more genes

principle of dominance

Some alleles are dominant and some are recessive

principle of independent assortment

Genes ofr different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.


Specific characteristic of an individual that varies.


chromosomes replicate and chromatin condenses

prophase 1

-pairing of homologous chromosomes occurs, each chromosome consists of two chromatids and crossing over occurs

metaphase 1

chromosome centromeres attach to spindle fibers and HC line up at the equator

anaphase 1

HC separate and move to opposite poles of the cell

telophase 1

the spindle fibers break down, chromosomes uncoil and form two nuclei, the cell divides

prophase 2

chromosomes condense, spindles form in the new cells and attach to chromosomes.

metaphase 2

centromeres of chromosomes line up randomly at the equator of each cell.

anaphase 2

centromeres split, sr. chromatids separate and move to opposite poles

telophase 2

four nuclei form around chromosomes, spindles break down, cells divide.


four new cells have formed, each nuleus contains a haploid number of chromosomes.

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