- Acute: anxiety, tearing, changes in eye expression, fixed and dilated pupils, restlessness, increase or decrease in physical activity, lameness, change in appetite and personality, self-mutilation, vocalization, salivation, tachypnea/tachycardia, elevated; glucose, cortisol, ACTH, catecholamines
- Chronic: guarding behavior in movement and posture, avoidance of pain aggravating influences, seeking of pain-relieving factors and environments, self-care of painful region, stress, weight loss, inappetence, hirsutism
- HPA system: adrenal corticosteroids can be measured in plasma, saliva, feces, good for acute pain but not chronic, less sensitive to low grade pain
- Endogenous opiate systems: monitor endorphin and enkephalin levels
- Neurologic: EEG or brain mapping
-Metabolic changes: electrolyte imbalance, acidosis, glucose and lactate imbalance
-Cardiovascular: heart rate, blood pressure
- Respiratory: changes in rate, pattern, blood gases, tidal volume
Development of a questionnaire for owners of
dogs with chronic pain, 109 different descriptors of behavior to choose from that are indicative of the quality of life.
13 categories looked at: activity, comfort, appetite, aggression, anxiety, alertness, dependence, consistency, contentment, agitation, compulsion, posture-mobility, extroversion, and introversion.
Researchers hope to develop a similar questionnaire for cats and horses.
7th Edition•ISBN: 9780323402118Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton 7th Edition•ISBN: 9780323087896 (1 more)Julie S Snyder, Linda Lilley, Shelly Collins 11th Edition•ISBN: 9781260813494Edward Howley, John Quindry, Scott Powers 7th Edition•ISBN: 9781418030216Louise M Simmers