43 terms

Junior Cert - Geography - Economic Activity Definitions

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Define Primary Economic Activities
Activities that deal with raw materials (Minerals, Farming, Fishing, Water)
Secondary Economic Activities
Processing of raw materials into finished goods (xbox, mobile phones, ships, cars, etc;)
Tertiary economic activities
Provision of services (law, nursing, accountancy, software development)
Name 3 primary economic concepts
Renewable energy, non-renewable energy, Water cycle, Production cycle, Reservoir, Hydrocarbons, OPEC, Raised and blanket bogs, Eco-parks, sustainable exploitation, leaching.
What is Renewable energy
The use of non-finite resources such as solar power that can be used over and over again
What is NON renewable energy
The use of FINITE resources such as oil, coal and peat that once used cannot be used again
What is the water cycle
The Earths way of recycling water, also known as the HYDROLOGICAL cycle
What is the production cycle
The length of time it take to produce a product, before it is ready to become an output.
What is a reservoir
The storage of water before it is pumped to treatment works.
What are hydrocarbons
Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, peat, and gas.
What is OPEC
The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries. (They set crude oil prices)
What are blanket bogs
Upland shallow bogs unsuitable for commercial development
What are raised bogs
Low lying deep bogs found in the Midlands of Ireland, SUITABLE for commercial development
What is an ECO-PARK
The restoration of wetlands by planting coniferous forests or grasslands to conserve Fauna and flora.
What is sustainable exploitation
How we ensure we preserve resources for future generations
What are the four main stages of the hydrological cycle
Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, collection
What is Flora
Flora is a generic term for plants
What is Fauna
Fauna is a generic term for Animals
What is leaching
Leaching is an economic concept concerning how minerals are washed down into the subsoil
What is a natural resource
Natural resources include everything provided by nature
What are renewable resources
These are resources that can be replaced if they are managed properly (Fish, water, timber).
What NON renewable resources
These are resources that CANNOT be replaced they are finite (Coal, Oil, Peat)
Give 4 reasons why we need clean water
Proper sanitation for a healthy lifestyle, irrigation for agriculture, cooling machinery in industry, Animals and plants require clean water to live
Give 3 threats to clean water supply
Water supply being polluted with phosphates and nitrates from fertilisers, toxic chemicals from Industrial waste and sewage form untreated animal waste.
Is fishing a renewable resource?
Yes, if it is managed properly, unfortunately due to overexploitation many species are now in danger of extinction.
What Natural factors affect fish stocks
continental shelf, plankton, ocean currents, the shape of the coastline
What is a continental shelf
This is a relatively shallow area of water surrounding landmasses, sea plants can get sunlight and tides and currents carry nutrients.
What are plankton
These are microscopic lifeforms that are food for marine creatures
What is the North Atlantic Drift
This is an ocean current that bring relatively warm water to Northern Europe keeping ports ice free in Winter.
What is overfishing
Overfishing occurs when too many fish of a particular species are caught, endangering their ability to reproduce
What are the reasons for overfishing
Large factory ships, Improved navigational aids, purse seining, trawling and drift netting, refrigeration, transportation, better processing
What are factory ships
These are large vessels that process and refrigerate fish on board.
What are navigation aids
This equipment (echo sounders, Sat Nav, Radar) enables fishing vessels to locate fish easily.
What is purse seining
This is a form of fishing the fishing boat attaches a large net to a buoy, then sails around the buoy and pulls the net closed, trapping the fish. (Pelagic fish)
What is trawling
Trawlers drag a funnel shaped net over the sea bed. (Demersal fish)
What is drift net fishing
Net hang like curtains down below the surface of the water (Catches Pelagic fish)
Give an example of fish that are over-fished
Cod, Herring in the Atlantic, Anchovies off Peru.
Give 3 types of fishing conservation measures
Fishing limits, Reduction in catches, Quotas or Embargoes, fish farming, Mesh sizes, Reduce pollution
What are fishing conservation methods
Fishing limits, Reduce fishing fleet, quotas or embargoes, fish farming, mesh sizes, reduce pollution
What are fishing limits
Fishing limits restrict entry to fishing grounds to certain countries.
What are fishing quotas or embargoes
Fishing quotas restrict the number and types of fish that can be landed.
What is fish farming
fish farming is raising fish in cages where they are farmed.
What are mesh sizes
Mesh sizes is the size of the opening in fishing nets. Larger mesh sizes means smaller fish can escape.