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Psychology Module 14
Terms in this set (26)
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
The biological growth process, called __________, explains why most children begin walking by about 12-15 months
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
Theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.
Concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
Formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
in Vygotsky's theory, a framework that offers children temporary support as they develop higher levels of thinking
Object permanence, pretend play, conservation, and abstract logic are developmental milestones for which of Piaget's stages, respectively?
Object permanence for the sensorimotor stage, pretend play for the preoperational stage, conservation for the concrete operational stage, and abstract logic for the formal operational stage.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors
What does theory of mind have to do with autism spectrum disorder?
Theory of mind focuses on our ability to understand our own and others' mental states. Those with autism spectrum disorder struggle with this ability.
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development
the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period
What distinguishes imprinting from attachment?
Attachment is the normal process by which we form emotional ties with important others. Imprinting occurs only in certain animals that have a critical period very early in their development during which they must form their attachments, and they do so in an inflexible manner.
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Four parenting styles may be described as "too hard, too soft, too uncaring, and just right." Which parenting style goes with each of these style descriptions, and how do children benefit from the "just right" style?
The authoritarian style would be described as too hard, the permissive style too soft, the negligent style too uncaring, and the authoritative style just right. Parents using the authoritative style tend to have children with high self-esteem, self-reliance, self-regulation, and social competence.
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