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Domain I-RD Exam One and Done
RD Exam One and Done
Terms in this set (191)
Goal to create Pyruvate by breaking down glucose.
That pyruvate is then taken to the KREBS's Cycle to make energy.
Losing or Breaking Down/catabolism
process occurs in the cytoplasm.
Anaerobic (anti oxygen/no o2)
Before Glycolysis goes to krebs-this has to happen
glucose enters cell; combines with Phosphorus (only if Magnesium is present) to then form glucose-6-phosphate
Glycogen broken down in the liver into glucose and used for energy
glycogen-storage from of sugar
creation of glycogen from sugar/glucose
glycogen lives in liver
this is REVERSIBLE using glycogenolysis
the goal is to create glucose from new sources that are not glucose like fatty acids, amino acids, etc. Most of the process occurs in the liver and kidneys.
*Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis from happening
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
While G6P/Glycolysis is occurring the pentose phosphate pathway is happening at the same time. During this time, glycolysis is trying to finish it's own process to the TCA/Citric acid cycle.
glucose is "shunted" or "Shifted" from gycolysis to pentose phosphate
End Products: Pentose creates ribOSE
Ribose then helps create DNA and RNA
Pentose creates NADPH
P is for Phosphorus
goal is to bring lactate back to pyruvate to Prevent lactic acidosis.
Starts due to running out of oxygen and converts pyruvate to lactate in muscles
the body undergoes gluconeogenesis to produce carbs from non-carb sources (AA and FA) to create pyruvate which creates glucose for use.
helps with skin and vision
Def: Nytalopia=not permanent; night blindness, Xerophthalmia=zero abililty to reverse; cornea damage
Bitot spots (spots on white portions of eyes
Dry Scaly Skin
Vitamin A Food Sources
yellow, orange fruits/vegetables (carrots, sweet potatoes, apricots, cantaloupe)
Helps with calcium and phosphorus metabolism (THINK COPD)
Can help prevent depression
Def: Rickets and Osteomalacia
Vitamin D Food Sources
Direct sunlight, egg yolks, and fortified milk
Antioxidant, Prevents destruciton of RBC's
Blood Thinner, Think E=Elimates blood clots
Def: Hemeolytic Anemia (when RBC's are destroyed faster than they can be replaced)
Vitamin E Food Sources
Vegetable Oil, Cottonseed, Nuts
Helps with calcium metabolism; calcium is also blood clotter
synthesized by bacteria in Kolon
Def: Hemorrhage with increased bleeding, DO not take with antibiotics or anticoagulants; blood thinners
Vitamin K Food Sources
Kale, green leafy vegetables, spinach, broccoli
destroys pathogenic bacteria
145degrees F for 30min; 160F for 15seconds
Milk and Milk Products
low in iron and vit c
When using buttermilk in place of regular milk in recipe
increase the baking soda
precipitated at a PH 4.6
liquid that drains from curd of clotted milk
To prevent film from forming
cover or beat the milk to produce a foam
to prevent milk from coating on sides of pan
heat over water
to prevent curdling
add an acid slowly and agitate
an acid precipitates casein
more subject to oxidative rancidity (soybean oil)
Cream Fat %
heavy >36% fat
whipped cream 35% fat
sour cream >18% fat
Half and Half no less than 10.5% fat
to prevent stringy, curdled looking cheese products
cook for short time at moderate temperatures
Bread-strong gluten; 11.8% protein
All purpose-less gluten; 10.5% protein
Pastry-weaker gluten 7.9% protein
Cake-least and weakest gluten, more starch; 7.5% pro
enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, folic acid
Adding Bran decreases volume of end product....solution
increase flour and liquid to compensate
Straight Dough Method
all ingredients added before dough is allowed to rise
combine liquid with yeast and part of flour and allow this batter to ferment for several hours, add sugar, salt, fat, rest of flour; high in protein (bread)
proofing time is shortened; use strong flour
Continuous bread making method
reduces processing time
not as affected by fermentation time and temperature
Add acid to product when...
cooking is complete because acid breaks down starch and will give a runny product
Ex: if lemon juice is added to lemon meringue pie before cooking is complete, filling will be runny
imitation ice cream
brew at 185-203F
at higher temps, tannin is extracted and coffee is bitter
process to make decaf coffee
monoglycerides, diglycerides, lecithin, disodium phosphate
pectin, cellulose, gelatin, gum, agar
alkalinity=bright green color
Insoluble in water
Mushy; the hemicellulose is broken down
Olive green in an acid.
Insoluble in water
insoluble in water
least affected by acid or alkaline
act as an antioxidant
help contribute to red color in watermelons, tomatoes, and apricots.
Red, Blue, Purple
ReD in AciD
BLue in aLkaLine
soluble in water
they are greatly affected by changes in ph
Colorless in Acid
Yellow in Alkaline
Soluble in water
anthocyanins and anthoxanthins
naturally occurring compounds in food known to PHYT OFF disease.
Ex: Isoflavones, thiols, lignans, resvertrol, lycopene, etc.
Baking at high altitudes
Increase FLO (Flour, Liquid, Oven Temp)
Decrease BS (Baking powder/soda, sugar)
Yellowing of Cake
Alklaline batter (excess amount of baking soda)
Excess sugar, fat, baking powder, inadequate mixing, oven temp too low, open door during early baking.
Tough or Dry Cake
Caused by too much flour or egg. Also caused by too much mixing, too little fat, or too much sugar.
Caused by too much baking powder or sugar
Caused by too little baking powder or improper level of sugar or fat
Aids in the metabolism of Carbohydrates
"All these carbs are MINE"
Def: Beriberi, ataxia (impaired coordination, muscle weakness, foot drop, memory loss)
B1 Thiamine Food Sources
Grains, wheat germ and pork
Aids in production of RBC's; RiBoflavin=RBc production
Def: Growth Failture, Cheilosis (cracked lips), angular stomatitis (mouth corner cracks), sore throat, and magenta tongue
B2 Riboflavin food sources
Liver, Meat, and milk
NiAcIN=MAIN vitamin for energy production and metabolism. Tryptophan is the precursor and Niacin is needed for NADPH and NADP=Fatty acid synthesis
Def: 3D's=Pellagra (Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia) and beefy red tongue
B3 Niacin food sources
Protein, peanuts, rice, chicken
B5 Pantothenic Acid
Involved with Coenzyme A in energy; Aids in synthesizing fatty acids.
Def: Pins and Needs
B5 Pantothenic acid food sources
Animal foods and grains
Aids in AA metabolism, transamination and deamination
Increase in protein=increased need for B6
Def: Low=Anemia (microcytic) and Seizures
INH B6 antagonist
B6 Pyridoxine food sources
Meat and Wheat (gliadin=protein)
BioTIN is synthesized by intesTINal bacteria
Coenzyme in fatty acid synthesis (works with Niacin); Niacin and Biotin Work together
Converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate in gluconeogenesis
Def: Muscle Pain and dermatitis
B7 Biotin food sources
liver, kidney, and yeast
FoLATE helps me to reLATE to my child (DNA synthesis and forms RBC's)
Aids in preventing neural tube defects
600 micrograms in pregnancy
400 micrograms in normal adults
Def: Macrocytic anemia and fatigue
B9 Folate Food Sources
Fortified cereals, Liver, and leafy green vegetables
Bound to intrinsic factor in the stomach but absorbed in ileum
coenzyme in protein synthesis and forms RBCs
Def: Macrocytic anemia or Pernicious Anemia; B12 def common in vegans
B12 Cynocobalamin Food Sources
Liver, meat, milk, and eggs (animal products)
Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
Vit C heals "cuts" Aka wounds
Aids in iron absorption
Def: Scurvy, poor wound healing and bleeding gums
Vitamin C ascorbic Acid food sources
citrus and yellow veggies/fruits
Calcium=Clotter, Cardiac Function, Contracts muscles
Calcium is Bound to Albumin (calcium can be falsely low if albumin is low)
Def: low calcium=tetany (muscle spasms)
Calcium food Sources
Dairy products and leafy greens
transpots fat through tissues and blood
Part of DNA/RNA and ATP
Def is RARE
Phosphorus food sources
meat, milk/dairy, eggs, chocolate, and dark colas
works with COpper; both have O's which means "alike"
"an iron worker keeps copper in his pocket"
Part of Hgb
Food form-Ferric, Ferrous=supplement, Ferritin=tin cage that holds iron
Iron def anemia
Iron food sources
Heme=animal foods (meat, fish, turkey)
Non-Heme=vegetables, eggs, cereal->not absorbed as well as heme
Aids in Hgb synthesis (aka protein)
Aids in iron absorbtion
Attached to protein ceruloplasmin
Def: May result in microcytic anemia (due to iron)
Low Copper=Wilson's Disease
copper Food Sources
Liver, Kidney, Fish (aka protein foods)
Aids in wound healing, and insulin action for carbs
Offender of Copper and Iron because it doesn't have an O
High Zinc=copper or iron def.
Zinc Food Sources
Meat, Liver, eggs and fish
Magnifies energy; it stabiles ATP. Synthesizes protein and fatty acids.
Needs for magnesium increase when Vit D, Calcium, and protein is high.
Def is RARE
magnesium food sources
found in a majority of foods
Iodine Food Sources
Seafood & Salt
Can cause dental carries and helps with teeth
Def: browning of teeth with lack of enamel protection
Fluoride Food Sources
Soil and Water
sElEnEEum=works with Vit E
Def: Myalgia or cardiac myopathy
Selenium Food Sources
Grains, Meat, and fish
"A Man never uses his brain" =deals with CNS
your central nervous system manages your body
Def: rare but can affect motor function and basic physical skills
Manganese Food Sources
Whole grains, legumes, and nuts
aids in insulin action; absorption can be enhanced by vitamin C
Def: Insulin Resistance
Chromium Food Sources
Potatoes, oysters, and yeast
Matures red blood cell
exists/works with B12
Low cobalt=cobalamin def. (B12)
Cobalt Food Sources
Dairy Products, and seafood
ChOLIne=co-lipid; component of lecithin (fat essential for body's cells)
Goal is to transport lipids as acetylcholine
Choline food sources
eggs (yolk), milk and liver
part of cysteine and methionine (AA)
Sulfur protects your TiSSues
Sulfur Food Sources
meat, eggs, fish, poultry
Eases symptoms of menopause and prevents hotflashes. It is also thought to promote blood clotting
"wearing black in summer time gives me hot flashes"
Comfrey & Valerian Root
Both are nerve soothing. Avoid these with liver disease.
Valerian Root=Very Relaxed
Helps with general cold symtpoms
An amphetamine. Can cause rapid heart beat. AmPhetamine can AMP you up.
Blood Thinner; can lower cholesterol, and blood clotting time is reduced. Avoid with Warfarin.
"Dracula hates garlic so he bites your neck and blood flows through his mouth; blood thinner"
Prevents vomiting & Calms nausea. Avoid with medications that affect bleeding.
"Think Ginger Ale calms Nausea"
Antioxidant that can reduce inflammation; Blood Clotter. Avoid using this herb with medications that affect bleeding.
Opposite of Gingko and Garlic; blood clotter
Only 3-G that blood clots
Causes vasodilation; avoid using this herb with medications that affect bleeding
Think avoid Biloba with Brain Meds (levodopa, dilantin;phenytoin;phenobarbital)
Aids in the production of the liver
St. John's Wort
Antidepressant; avoid with contraceptives and warfarin
"You got to see the pope "St John" who relieves you of all your depression and anxiety
Not to be taken with any other med besides brain medications (Statin, Birth control, steroids, warfarin)
Used for ulcers & Stomach ulcers. Avoid this with loop & Thiazide diuretics.
"The root (or Pit) of my stomach"
Aids in the relief of symptoms of enlarged prostate.
used for sexual dysfunction
"yo, him be fine or handsome"
An insult to CHO (insulin eats away glucose)
works to control and lower blood glucose levels
Know that insulin INHIBITS gluconeogenesis
Secretes glucsoe to raise blood glucose levels
EPI Pen; allergic reactions, bites, stings, etc.
" A Pine in your Hiney makes your heart rate increase, blood pressure go up and imitates Flight or fight response"
Main contributor to everything functioning in the body (bones, brain, digestion, heart, metabolism, and muscles)
Vascular Pressure or blood pressure
helps maintain osmolality-remember mL-water and glucose
Increases water reabsorption-antidiuretic
VasopressIN=INcreases blood pressure and water in the body
Angiotensin=Angie makes me tense
Helps promote aldosterone secretion
Aldosterone secretion=sodium production
Will raise blood pressure levels; being tense and mad can increase blood pressure
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
We want phosphorus and calcium to be leveled and even between the 2.
PTH secretes to increase calcium levels and decrease phosphorus. This is commonly secreted in dialysis patients because these labs are typical.
Tones down high calcium
does not change phosphorus levels
This is the inactive form of vit d; made in the liver to go to the kidney.
Active form of Vit D.; supplement with dialysis.
Hormone that makes RBC's
Hormone is made in kidney; need to supplement for dialysis due to non-functioning kidney
this is why anemia is common in dialysis=no EPO=no protection or production of RBC's
Helps maintain sodium balance
Addison's Disease; aldosterone is low in addison's disease which means we need to supplement in the diet.
This is a steroid hormone that regulates developement of male characteristics (think of testosterone)
Helps grow facial hair, build muscles, and controls voice change
Helps our body release milk ( and Happy hormones)
Production of milk; helps produce bigger breasts
too much prolactin=infertility problems
Prepares for gestation (forming a baby)
High levels in Prader Willi Syndrome
Gastric juice; hormone that secretes gastric juice in response to food for digestion. this hormone is located in the lining of the stomach and upper small intestine.
Gallbladder contracts to release bile; helps with digestion and appetite. it improves digestion by slowing down the emptying of food from the stomach.
also known as growth hormone; prevents the production of other hormones, it is an inhibitory hormone. found primarily in the GI Tract and nervous system.
Decreases appetite;lacking appetite
Secretes gastric acid; regulates gastric acid levels, regulates pancreatic bicarbonate, regulates water homeostasis
Anabolic hormone; helps with the growth of muscle mass and strength, increases muscle mass, bone mass, and growth of body hair
Establishes development of genes (menstrual cycles); controls the growth of the uterine lining during menstration cycles
MoiSt cooking Methods
Tough meats; round, chuck, brisket, etc.
Steaming, Simmering, Stewing, BraiSing
DRy Cooking Methods
Tender cuts near backbone-loin, sirloins, etc.
FRying, BRoiling, GRilling, Roasting
Helps lower cholesterol levels; found in tofu, tempeh, soy milk, soybeans, etc.
Sulfur compound known to detoxify carcinogens in body (lung cancer)
Onions, brussel sprouts, garlic, cabbage (cruciferous veg)
can reduce risk of developing prostate cancer
Protect Heart & reduce risk of cancer (breast)
Whole grains, flax seed, wheat germ
help your body function and provide benefits
Antioxidant, protects heart and aids in preventing blood clotting
Skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, wine, etc.
Reduces triglycerides level
Sterols & Stanols
Reduce total cholesterol & LDL Cholesterol
Describes your population
Creating Hypothesis; and not actually testing anything. No studying cause and effect
Explore a phenomenon of interest as an opening to a theory being developed. Data collected by: interviews, observations, questionnaires, focus groups
used to quantify and describe characteristics of a certain population
defined time frame
Case Report/Case Study/Case Series
No control group
group of cases with a certain disease will be described quantitatively.
Compares frequency of events and disease rates in several different populations.
Analyzes data or the population
Tests hypothesis and cause and effect can be proven.
the populations chosen are random and experimental group will receive the program or treatment. The control group will not receive treatment but receive placebo.
Randomized Clinical Trial
Participants are randomly assigned to a certain treatment group and remain that same group throughout
series of measurements at periodic intervals before the program even begins and also after the program ends.
Tracks frequency of NEW cases of disease. It is done over a long period of time and is prospective. Can also be retrospective using data from a previous time period.
Case Control Studies
People with disease are compared with a group that does not have the disease but have similar characteristics.
Snap Shot look at one point in time
only describes current cases, not past ones
Is always stated first
Secreted by stomach glands
Helps break down proteins in the stomach w/ protease
Secreted by Pancreas; works in pancreas to finish breaking down proteins into AA
Produced in SI, Stomach, and Pancreas
Pepsin works in stomach with Protease
Protease breaks down proteins; into AA for absorption
Starts in mouth as salivary amylase
goes into stomach
finishes in SI as pancreatic amylase
Starts in mouth as lingual lipase
continues in the stomach
finishes in SI as pancreatic lipase
Transtheoretical Stages of Change Model
precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance
knowledge or subject matter
Acquisition of attitudes and values, growth in feelings or emotions
Muscular Skills (exercises, food preparation)
Health Belief Model
Developed to explain why people, especially high risk people, fail to participate in programs designed to detect or prevent disease
"You have the right to feel upset, anybody would"
Active or Reflective Listening
Paraphrase or repeat back
Pose a question after an ambiguous client message; used to make previous message explicit
Cognitive Behavioral Theory CBT
the aim is to introduce changes in the cognitive or thought process that maintain a behavior that needs to be changed
Lists changes in USDA food programs
glucose, fructose, galactose
Sucrose (glucose and fructose), Lactose (glucose and galactose), Maltose (glucose and glucose)
fluid moves from less to more concentrated side of membrane
particles move from more to less concentrated side
Cause: CO2 retention, hypoventilation, emphysema
Compensatory: Kidneys increase absorption of base (bicarbonate)
Cause: Loss of CO2, Hyperventilation, anxiety, severe exercise
Compensatory: Kidneys excrete base (bicarbonate)
Cause: kidneys excrete excess base; uremia, diarrhea
compensatory: respiration increases to expel carbon dioxide to Lower carbonic acid; hyperventilation
uncontrolled DM, starvation, high fat or low CHO diet
Cause: Abnormal retention of base increased ingestion of alkali diuretics, vomiting, loss of acid
Compensatory: Respiration decreases to retain carbon dioxide to increase carbonic acid
Pregnancy weight gain guidelines
25-35lbs for Normal BMI 18.5-24.9
28-40lbs for underweight BMI <18.5
15-25lbs for overweight BMI 25-29.9
11-20lbs for obese BMI >30
Add solids at which age
4-6months-iron-foritified cereal, rice, then strained fruits/vegetables
6-8months of age
small finger foods
9-12months of age
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