The primate species to which modern humans belong; humans regarded as a species; Latin, literally "wise man".
An extinct species of human that was widely distributed in ice-age Europe between 120,000 and 35,000 years ago; believed to be the first to bury their dead.
Anno Domini; the year of our Lord; number of years after the birth of Christ
The period of time before written records or before writing developed.
The taming and breeding of an animal on a farm or the cultivation of plants for food.
A wild mountain goat with long, ridged horns, found in parts of central Asia and in Ethiopia.
Traditionally the period of time between the ancient and modern periods; that is, between the fall of the western Roman Empire in 476AD and around 1500.
Traditionally the period of time between the start of recorded history, when people first began to write, in about 3300BC, and the fall of the western Roman Empire, in 476AD.
hunting and gathering
The lifestyle and means of survival of all the world's people until about 10,000 BC and of many people after that time; typically involves following the wild herds of migrating animals in order to hunt them for food and gathering foods that grow in the wild, such as berries, nuts and tubers.
An object made by a human being, typically one of cultural or historical interest.
Before the Common Era: the phrase used to describe the period of time before the Christian era; this term is especially used by civilisations without a Christian heritage but also by people who do not wish to emphasise religious faith in their wording.
Common Era: the phrase used to describe the period of time after the beginning of the Christian era (that is, after the birth of Christ); this term is especially used by civilisations without a Christian heritage but also by people who do not wish to emphasise religious faith in their wording.
A person who, usually as a member of a small group, travels from place ot place in order to hunt animals, gather wild foods or, in more modern times, find fresh pasture for animals
A set of ideas intended to explain why or how something happens, usually based on evidence or logic
The part of the brain believed to have been smaller in Neanderthals, despite the fact that the overall size of their brains was bigger than those of Homo sapiens; this part is responsible for complex thought, problem solving and planning.
A short-handled farming tool with a semicircular blade, used for cutting corn, lopping or trimming
mortar and pestle
A heavy bowl teamed with a rod with a rounded end, used for crushing and grinding substances such as spices or grain
Old Stone Age
Period of prehistory during which all the world's peoples lived by hunting wild animals and gathering wild foods such as berries, nuts, grain and tubers
New Stone Age
Period of prehistory during which some peoples began to grow grain and other crops and domesticate animals, thereby creating a new way of life
The study of the remains of human cultures, such as tools, artefacts, weapons, housing, etc.
Storage tank or chamber for grain
One of the 12 crops that account for 80% of the modern world's annual tonnage of crops harvested
A hard stone that was frequently flaked or ground into a tool or weapon by prehistoric humans
Large extinct mammal related to elephants and known from fossil and mummified remains in northern Eurasia and North America. Now also used as a synonym of HUGE!
A brown material made of partly decomposed vegetable matter forming a deposit on acidic, boggy ground. It can be dried for use in gardening and as fuel. The lack of oxygen in this substance means that bodies buried in it do not decay but instead are naturally mummified.
In a historical context, this is a prehistoric refuse heap of shells, bones and often also discarded artefacts, which can be used to find out details about a civilisation.
A crescent-shaped area of fertile land in the Middle East extending from the eastern Mediterranean coast rhough the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf. It was the centre of the first development of agriculture from about 9000 years ago.
A slowly moving mass or river of ice formed by the accumulation of snow on mountains; particularly common during the Ice Ages!
A period in the earth's history when polar and mountain ice sheets were unusaully extensive and when the climate was so cold that survival for human beings was especially difficult or precarious
The practice of farming, including growing crops and rearing animals to provide food, wool and other products
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