AP Biology - Summer unit

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Theme - emergent properties pop up as you move up in the biological hierarchy. What is an example of an emergent property?
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Terms in this set (128)
Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ system + organs, tissues, cells, organelles, molecules, atoms

The biosphere consists of many ecosystems.
An ecosystem is made up of a community of all the living organisms and non-living aspects with which the living organisms interact. A community is made up of populations of many species. A population includes many organisms of the same specie. An organism is composed of organ systems and organs. An organ is composed of tissues. A tissue is composed of similar cells. A cell, the basic unit of life, includes organelles. An organelle is made-up of complex arrangements of molecules. A molecule is a bond of different atoms.
energy available to do work

energy from the sun goes to the earth. Then plants or producers use this energy and undergoes a process called photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis, the plants produce sugars. Then, the plants undergo another process called respiration, and releases the energy from the sugar in form of ATP. All this leads eventually leaves as heat.
Theme - the cell is the basic unit of structure and function for an organism. Give an example.The process of digestion is enabled by the enzymes produced by cells in the digestive tract.Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Both cells are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cells and their surroundings. Both cells have DNA. Prokaryotic cells are for bacteria and archaea (two groups of microorganisns). Prokaryotic cells' DNA are not separated from the rest of the cell in a membrane-bounded nucleus. Eukaryotic cells compose all other forms of life, like plants and animals. They have a various membrane-enclosed organelles such as the DNA-containing nucleus. The other organelles are in the cytoplasm (area between nucleus and the outer membrane of the cell)Theme: The Continuity of Life Is Based on DNA. Give an example.For humans, the color of my eye is determined by the combo of the genes I inherited from my parents.What is Gene Pool and its role in evolution?Gene Pool is the combination of all the the genes in a population, and all alleles in a population. Biological evolution is simply due to changes to the gene poolAllelea variety of a gene. Most genes have two alleles, a dominant and a recessive one. like the white moth has the dd trait (homozygous recessive) and the black moth has either the Dd (heterozygous dominant) or DD (homozygous dominant)According to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the Gene Pool should remain the same unless...Unless the 5 things that cause evolution occurs: selection, mutation, non random mating, emigration/immigration, small sample sizeFitness means what?to survive and reproduce and over time when an organism has enough fitness, this can lead to adaptations.Adaptation doesn't just have to be ______ but also a ______.change in physical trait; behavioral change. It's best characterized as a processWhat are chromosomes and their purpose?Chromosomes have almost all of a cell's DNA, which are genes that are inherited from parent to offspring. They are made up of one long DNA molecule.Gregor Mendel INFORMATIONconsidered the father of modern genetics and did extensive research on genetic heritability, alleles, and inheritance think of his observations of pea plantsWhat is information transfer?responding to our environment through cell communicationDNA - function and structureDNA is the code for making proteins and stores genes; double helixgene expressionconversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a proteinprocess to know: DNA makes RNA makes proteins make youpositive feedbackfeedback in which the end product speeds up its own productionnegative feedback (most common)feedback in which the accumulation of the end product slows down the process of its production.Theme - evolution, the explanation for unity and diversity. Explain that statement.All organisms on earth are modified descendants of common ancestors.What are the 5 things that cause evolution?natural selection, small sample size, non random mating, mutations, emigration/immigrationnon-random matinghumans, for example, favors some genes and traits over others and not just mating with any random person of the opposite sex. This non-random mating disrupts the natural distribution of alleles, which leads to evolution. random mating, as we can guess, mixes the genes in the gene pool for the next generation, keeping the natural distribution of alleles which preserves the Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium.Mutationa random error in gene replication that leads to a changeMigrationenables genes to move from one population to anothersmall sample sizecan produce rapid changes in gene frequencies totally independent of mutation and natural selection. These changes are due solely to chance factors. The smaller the population, the more susceptible it is to such random changes.What is natural selection and what does it allow organisms to do? (Remember DRS)the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations Selection is the only thing that can lead to adaptations, which allows organisms to be better adapted to their local environment. DRS - Differential (knowing what differential means is key) Reproductive SuccessHow does the taxonomic system compare with a mailing address?As a mailing address narrows down from the country to the street number, the taxonomic system narrows down from the domain to the species.In which domain of life do humans belong to?Domain Eukarya the two other kingdoms in this domain are the fungi and plantsThe three kingdoms in the domain eukarya are partly distinguiez by their modes of nutrition. How do animals obtain their nutrition?Through ingestion, eating and digesting of other organismsIf you knew Charles believed in macroevolution, how would you think he described his two main ideas in his evolution book?1. All species alive today come from a common ancestor. "Descent with modification" 2. This modification is done through a evolutionary mechanism called natural selection.Including natural selection, what are the 5 things that cause evolution?Selection, migration, small sample size, mutations, non random mating.Natural selection is based on DRS- differential reproductive success. Give an example.During a time, where there were white and black moths. The black months happened to have a trait that helped them survive and thus be able to reproduce. The numbers of black moths would increase in the population while the white moths decrease (birds would eat them). Natural selection - textbook definition: the environment selects for the continuation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the pop.What is a hypothesis?A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested must be testable and falsifiable1.3 How is inductive reasoning different from deductive reasoning?Inductive reasoning leads people to make generalizations based on specific cases whereas deductive reasoning leads people to predict specific outcomes from general premises.1.3 Name one difference between theory and hypothesis.A theory tends to be more general and is supported by more evidence than a hypothesis. natural selection is considered a theory.Is a trace element an essential element?Yes because an organism requires trace elements, but in small amounts.How does table salt connect to the theme of emergent properties?Table salt is a molecule composed of an atom of Sodium, a metal, and an atom of chlorine, a poisonous gas, and creates an edible compound. New properties emerge as you move up the biological hierarchy. Atoms -> moleculeHow is atomic mass measured?Atomic mass is the mass of the nucleons - protons and neutrons. Really, it's the average amu of all the isotopes of an element present in nature.How do you define an isotope?All atoms of an element has to have the same number of protons. But isotopes of an element means the atom has different number of neutrons. Sometimes an isotope can become unstable, or radioactive if it has a weird amount of neutrons, which causes the nucleus to decay spontaneously, emitting particles and energy. The decay can even lead to a change in the number of protons, so the atom may change from one element to another.Why do people use morphine to make themselves happier and lessen stress? (think in terms of chemistry and bio)Again it connects to the theme - form fits function. Morphine has a specific form that is similar to the shape of natural endorphin molecules, which attach itself to endorphin receptors in the brain that induces feelings of happiness.Compare Covalent Bonds, Ionic Bonds, and Hydrogen Bonds.Covalent bonds are when two or more atoms share electrons. Ionic bonds are when two ions, particularly one cation and one anion, attract each other and form a compound. Hydrogen bonds is when hydrogen bonds to an electronegative atom which enables the partially positive hydrogen side to bond with different electronegative atoms nearby.How does electronegativity affect covalent bonds?Think of H2O, for example. Since oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, oxygen pulls the shared electrons closer to it which leaves the oxygen side of the molecule partially negative and the hydrogen side partially positive.How does a lizard use Van Der Waals interactions to help it climb a tree?First, Van der Waals interactions are caused by this: a non polar covalent bond doesn't mean there is no + or - charged regions. Because electrons are not at all times symmetrically distributed within a molecule. This results in ever-changing regions of + or - charge and allows all atoms and molecules to stick to each other. Thus, Van Der Waals interactions are weak, but for the lizard, when a climbing a tree, the numerous times the hair molecules on its feet and the the molecules of the tree's surface interact allows it to be strong enough to support its weight when climbing.Which type of chemical reaction occurs faster at equilibrium, the formation of products from reactants or reactants from products?Neither, at equilibrium, these rates are the same.If oxygen and hydrogen were of equal electronegativity, what would happen to the properties of the water molecule?The covalent bonds of water molecules would be non polar, and water molecules would not be able to create hydrogen bonds with other water molecules.What are the emergent properties of water?cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperatures, expansion upon freezing, versatility as a solventWhat enables water's cohesive behavior? What does this cohesion mean for trees?Cohesion means that water molecules attract to other water molecules through hydrogen bonding. Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding contributes to the transport of water and dissolved nutrients against gravity in trees, or plants in general.Give an example of how water's cohesion and adhesion work together to help nature.Within trees, there are water-conducting cells, and each cell is able to transport water from its roots to its leaves. The water is able to defy gravity and move against it through adhesion, as the water molecules bond with the cell wall to resist gravity. Through cohesion, water molecules stick to each other to hold together the column of water within the tree's cell.Versatility as a Solvent (Water)The property of water that allows it to dissolve polar substances: polaritySurface tension in waterhigh due to hydrogen bonding as the textbook explains: at the interface between water and air is an ordered arrangement of water molecules, hydrogen-bonded to one another (H2) and to the water below. This makes the water behave as though coasted with an invisible film. Like the picture of a spider standing on water.Water is able to moderate temperature b/c of itshigh specific heat water can absorb or release a lot of heat with only a slight change in its internal temperature.Fun fact: as liquid water evaporates, the surface of the liquid that remains cools down. Also when mammals sweat, it prevents them from overheating. What property of water enables mammals to do this?Heat loss due to evaporation of water. In other words, evaporating sweat takes heat from the body. As sweat evaporates, the hydrogen bonds within break and water absorbs the heat and takes heat away from the body.How does water's ability to moderate temperature help nature?For humans, because we are made up of mostly water, our internal temperature will not experience quick, extreme temperature changes and instead remain with some sort of balance. So it's not as easy for us to overheat.Benefit of water's expansion as it turns into ice?If ice didn't float, all of earth's bodies of water would freeze, and there would be no life. also, the layer of ice that floats protects the liquid water below from freezing, so life can continue below the iceWater is not a universal solvent but more of a versatile solvent. True or false, and explain.True. If water was a universal solvent then it would dissolve a plastic bottle that it is held in. But water is certainly a versatile solvent due to its molecular polarity. For example water can dissolve salt because the partially charged sides of a water molecule can attract and isolate the opposite charged ions of salt (the hydrogen would attract the negatively charged Chlorine).What is a hydration shell?the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion (think of the water molecules surrounding a dissolved Na+ cation or a Cl- anion when water dissolve the NaCl salt)HydrophilicHaving an affinity for water; readily absorbing or dissolving in water.hydrophobicwater repelling - think of those water droplets that remain their perfect circular form on a wooden tableHow do buffers help humans and organisms survive?Buffers in biological fluids (like carbonic acid) contribute to pH stability in human blood and many other biological solutions despite the addition of acids or bases. What allows buffers to do this is a buffer accepts hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and donates hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been depleted. Most buffer solutions have a weak act and its corresponding base, which combine reversibly with hydrogen ions.what leads to ocean acidification?increased atmospheric CO2 content CO2 indirectly leads to more concentration of hydrogen ions which indirectly impedes the formation of calcium carbonate which is used by many marine organisms such as corals.Living matter is made mostly of _____, _____, _____, and _____, with some _____ and _____.carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, with some sulfur and phosphorusWhat disproved the idea of vitalism - organic compounds only arise from living organisms.When chemists could synthesize organic compounds in the lab.Biological diversity has its molecular basis in carbon's ability to do what?Carbon's ability to form a huge number of particles with particle shapes and chemical properties. Carbon, with a valence of 4, can bond with various other atoms, including Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen. Carbon can also bond with other carbon atoms, forming the carbon skeletons of organic compounds. the whole form fits function ties with this carbon unit pretty well.How are fat and gasoline chemically similar?Fat and gasoline are mainly made up of hydrocarbon chains. Keep in mind that hydrocarbon chains are hydrophobic, so they do not dissolve in water. But they are not colloids because colloids have partially charged sides while fat, for example, its great majority of its bonds are relatively non polar carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.Isomers are compounds with the same number of atoms but different shapes, thus different properties. What are the three types of isomers?structural isomers, cis-trans isomers, enantiomers.Why can't C3H8 have isomers?C3H8 can't have structural isomers because there's only one way to line up three carbons. It also can't and doesn't form double bonds between its carbons so it can't have cis-trans isomers. It also can't have enantiomers because it's fully symmetrical.structural isomerCompounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.cis-trans isomercarbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the inflexibility of double bondsEnantiomersisomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon. An asymmetric carbon is a carbon that is attached to four different atoms or groups.What are two ways different chemical groups contribute to a molecule's function?When the chemical group affects the molecule's shape. In other cases, when the chemical groups are directly involved in chemical reactions. In the latter case, these important chemical groups are called functional groups.the seven chemical groups most important in biological processeshydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl groupsIn what ways does a methyl group differ chemically from the other six important chemical groups?Methyl group is non polar and non reactive, it often serves as a recognizable tag on biological molecules. The other six groups are called functional groups. They each are hydrophilic, increasing the solubility of organic compounds in water, and can participate in chemical reactions.hydroxyl group—OHcarbonyl groupC=Ocarboxyl group—COOHamino group—NH2sulfhydryl group—SHphosphate group-OPO3^2-, organic phosphatemethyl group—CH3The four categories of biological molecules, or macromolecules.Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydratesMonomersmall building blocks that make up polymersNucleic acids monomersNucleotides (sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base)Function of nucleic acidsmake up genetic materialThree parts of a nucleotidephosphate group, sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), and nitrogenous baseDifferences between a DNA nucleotide and a RNA nucleotideThe different nitrogenous base in RNA is Uracil, and Thymine in DNA. DNA has a double helix, while RNA has one strand.The four nucleotides in DNA? RNA?DNA and RNA both have cytosine, guanine, and adenine. RNA has uracil. DNA has thymine.Protein monomersamino acids (20 different kinds) we get them through our dietWhat differentiates one amino acid from another?R groupWhat gives structure to proteins?The different amino acids that have different shapes, thus different properties.What is the directionality of a protein and its significance?There is a carboxyl side and amino side. The significance of a protein's directionality is how our body breakdown that protein into its amino acids for us to use to build our own proteins.One process to remember: DNA makes RNA makes proteins makes you.Carbohydrates monomersugarFunction of carbohydratesgive us energyWhat helps make different types of carbohydratesbonding of the sugars - where the bonds come from leads to different structures in sugars.What makes the different types of glucosethe shape of the glucose depends on how/where the hydroxyl group is pointing out from.Significance of directionality of the monomers in a polymerdepending which direction we get monomers, different properties arise. Remember form fits functiondehydration synthesisthe process of putting monomers together to form a polymer lose a water and form a covalent bondhydrolysisthe process of breaking down a polymer, through adding a waterWhat are the different types of Lipids (4)cholesterol, a free fatty acid, a triglyceride, a phospholipid (makes up feel membranes)function of lipidsstore energy and make up cell membraneWhat are the common factors between those diff lipids?they each have hydrocarbon chains/tailsWhat is significant about hydrocarbons found in lipids?Explains why fats have a fairly large amount of energy. More importantly, lipids are non polar so they don't bond with water.What is unique about phospholipids?Phospholipids are amphipathic, meaning they have a polar and non polar side. The polar side faces out of the cell membrane.Difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acidssaturated means there are hydrogens all the way around the outside of the carbon chain, so the structure will be straight. Unsaturated means there aren't hydrogens all the way around the outside, so the structure is bent. Meaning, the unsaturated fatty acid is also bent because there's a double bond.What is ATP?Adenosine Triphosphate - ENERGY used by cells to do workATP structureadenine, ribose, 3 phosphatesHow does ATP convert to ADP? And what is the significance of this reaction?Through hydrolysis. If we leave ATP in water, for example, the water will break up ATP by removing a phosphate. By removing a phosphate, this phosphate has energy (since between each phosphate group, where there is a bond, there is potential energy). Now, two phosphates remain, becoming ADP. To re-form ATP, we just need some energy to attach a phosphate group again, dehydration reaction. the significance: this reaction releases energy that can be used by the cell.Some facts about ATP- Through cellular respiration, we build ATP. ATP goes wherever it's needed bc of diffusion. ATP is also used to build RNA.What is the released phosphate used for?active transport to pump sodium out and potassium in. To keep all those neurons working. and muscle contraction. and polymer synthesistranspirationEvaporation of water from the leaves of a planttranscription(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNAtranslocationA genetic change in which a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.CHONPSmostly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and some phosphorus, sulfurHow many bonds can CHONPS make?Carbon - 4 Nitrogen and Phosphorus - 3 Sulfur and Oxygen - 2 Hydrogen - 1What of CHONPS are used to build all biological molecules, storing energy and form cells?CarbonWhat of CHONPS is used to build carbohydrates? Proteins? Lipids? Nucleic Acids?CHO (don't rly need to know this but chitin includes N) CHON and S CHO and P CHONPplacebo effectthe phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behaviorpositive control groupgroup that's expected to show results/be affected Purpose: to also validate experimental procedurenegative control groupgroup where there should not be an effect Purpose: to validate the experimental procedureControl groupin an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment Increases scientis's confidence that the difference in results is caused by the treatment, not any other underlying factorWhat should we know about the scientific method?

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