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Anatomy Unit 3
Terms in this set (210)
Pulmonary gas exchange occurs in the
What reduces friction around the lungs as they expand and contract ?
Name the epithelial tissue that forms the respiratory mucosa
pseudostratidfied ciliated columnar
Gas exchange occurs in all of the following locations except
What is the function of the vestibular folds?
close the glottis during swallowing
What flap of elastic cartilage keeps food and liquids from entering the larynx during swallowing?
Which function is not related to the structural arrangement of the C- shaped cartliage rings surrounding the trachea?
enhance the resonance of the voice
The four major processes of respiration include all of the following except
oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
The _____________ is the serous membrane lining the surface of the lungs
What type of alveolar cell produces surfactant?
Type II alveolar cells
What increases air turbulence to extract dust and other debris from air traveling through the nasal cavity?
Nasal conchae and meatuses
Which structure is not found in the upper respiratory tract?
Air inhaled through the nose travels through the divisions of the pharynx in what order?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
Which of the following bones is not a location of a paranasal sinus?
What area in the lower respiratory system contains sensory receptors that trigger a violent cough reflex in response to foreign material?
Mucosa of the carina
What structure of the lower respiratory tract lacks cartilage but contains a large amount of smooth muscle?
Which of the following structures is part of the respiratory zone?
Which of the following functions is not associated with the larynx?
Detection of odors
What is the advantage of breathing through the nose rather than the mouth?
The nose warms, humidifies, and filters inhaled air.
What is the function of goblet cells?
Secretes mucus that traps foreign particles
The process of respiration that moves air into and out of the lungs is __________
The respiratory system does not function in __________
blood cell production
What is the opening between the vocal cords of the larynx called?
Air travels from the respiratory bronchioles to the __________
Which of the following structures is not associated with the larynx?
What is (are) the main muscle(s) of pulmonary ventilation?
A ______________ is an instrument used to measure respiratory volumes.
Which statement best describes tidal volume?
Tidal volume is the air exchanged during normal breathing.
What primarily determines airway resistance in the respiratory passageways?
Diameter of the conducting zone passageways
What reduces alveolar surface tension?
Which law states that each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure?
What is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after a forced expiration?
What determines the direction of gas movements in internal respiration?
Partial pressure gradient
Air moves out of the lungs when the intrapulmonary pressure, or pressure inside the lungs, is ___
greater than atmospheric pressure
Expiration occurs when the pressure inside the lungs is:
greater than atmospheric pressure.
Which of the following factors does not determine pulmonary compliance?
Elasticity of elastic tissue in the lungs
Which of the following factors does not affect the efficiency of tissue gas exchange?
The diameter of an alveolus
Why does carbon dioxide dissolve better in plasma than oxygen?
It has a higher solubility in water.
Which of the following actions is not classified as a nonrespiratory movement?
Which of the following factors will not increase airway resistance?
The sympathetic nervous system
Vital capacity = ______
tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume
Carbon dioxide has a relatively high solubility in blood plasma, although it has a very low partial pressure. What law describes this phenomenon?
What does Boyle's law state about pressure and volume at a constant temperature and a constant pressure?
Pressure increases when volume decreases
What is the coupling of blood flow with the amount of air reaching the alveoli known as?
What pulmonary capacity can be measured when a person inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible?
Which of the following actions will occur in the lungs if intrapleural pressure equals or increases above atmospheric pressure?
Extremely low concentrations of oxygen in the blood is known as __________.
The coupling of blood flow with the amount of air reaching the alveoli is known as _________
Predict what happens to air movement when atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg, intrapulmonary pressure is 758 mm Hg, and intrapleural pressure is 754 mm Hg.
Which one of the following pressures is not a gradient that influences pulmonary ventilation?
Eupnea is largely controlled by which of the following structures?
Respiratory pattern generator (RPG)
Where are the central chemoreceptors located?
Medullary reticular formation
Which phenomenon counteracts the movement of bicarbonate ions from RBCs?
the chloride shift
What are peripheral chemoreceptors most sensitive to?
Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood
Which of the following changes accompanies emphysema?
Alveoli collapse and surface area is lost
Which of the following methods does not transport carbon dioxide in the blood?
Bound to Hb within platelets
Which of the following conditions is associated with a blood pH below 7.35?
Respiratory acidosis results from ___
Which of the following factors will increase the affinity of Hb for oxygen?
Increased CO in the blood
A patient presents with bronchoconstriction, inflamed airways, and excessive mucus production triggered by aspirin. This patient most likely suffers from __________
A decrease in which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen unloaded by hemoglobin into peripheral tissues?
When considering the central chemoreceptors, the most important stimulus that induces changes in ventilation is _________
partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood
Why is carbon monoxide so toxic?
It causes a change in Hb's shape that increases its affinity for oxygen.
Which of the following diseases is not a subtype of COPD?
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Carbon dioxide and water combine to form _____________
Which of the following factors can trigger hyperventilation?
High partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood
What is the most prevalent risk factor for lung cancer?
What is the primary source of carbonic acid in the blood?
Pco2 of the blood
Restrictive lung diseases typically include:
decreased pulmonary compliance
Which of the following events occurs as hemoglobin saturation decreases?
More oxygen is released from hemoglobin
The majority of carbon dioxide is transported ________
as the bicarbonate ion
Increased blood pH caused by low levels of carbon dioxide results in __
How is most oxygen transported in the blood?
Bound to hemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin
The affinity of hemoglobin (Hb) for oxygen increases with ________
decreased metabolic rate
A fully saturated hemoglobin molecule transports __________.
four molecules of oxygen
The _____ is an extremely thin layer of dense connective tissue that covers the kidney.
The area of the kidney that drains urine is the ___
In which kidney region are the renal pyramids located?
The two main divisions of the nephron are the:
renal corpuscle and renal tubule
What are the two main subdivisions of the nephron?
Renal corpuscle and renal tubule
The distal tubule is made up of
simple cuboidal epithelium with very few microvilli
Urine drains from a major calyx into __________.
The ______ is not an organ involved with the urinary system.
Starting with the most superficial layer, list the layers of connective tissue surrounding the kidney
Renal fascia, adipose capsule, and renal capsule
Urine is transported from kidney to the urinary bladder by the _______
Where does blood in the arcuate artery travel next on its journey toward the glomerulus?
Interlobular (cortical radiate) artery
Filtered fluid leaving the glomerular capillaries immediately enters the
The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule is covered with specialized epithelial cells called
The renal artery, renal vein, renal nerves, and ureter all enter and exit through the ____
Which of the following structures is made up of simple cuboidal epithelium with many microvilli that help increase surface area?
In cortical nephrons, the
renal corpuscle lies in the outer portion of the renal cortex
Which part of the nephron is responsible for filtering blood?
Which statement best describes the function of tubular reabsorption?
Tubular reabsorption reclaims items from filtrate and returns them to the blood
____ are the functional units of the kidney.
The functional units of the kidneys are _________
The portion of the renal tubule through which filtrate initially flows is known as the _____
Which of the following functions are performed by the urinary system?
Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and remove metabolic wastes
Which of the following sequences correctly follows the flow of blood, from largest to smallest, after the renal artery to just before the peritubular capillaries?
Segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, and efferent arteriole
Which of the following is not a function that takes place in the kidneys?
Which of the following structures are found in the renal medulla?
The glomerular capillaries are drained by the ____
The process of filtration occurs at the
The glomerulus is a group of _______________ capillaries, which allow large volumes of fluids and solutes to be exchanged.
All of the following functions are associated with the kidney except:
retention of metabolic wastes
A tightly packed group of cells where the ascending limb of the nephron loop and the distal tubule transition are known as the
All of the following physiological processes are carried out by the kidneys except
The myogenic mechanism acts to restore glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by changing ________
The main hormone regulating facultative water reabsorption is
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What is the primary pressure driving glomerular filtration?
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
What is the net filtration pressure (NFP) if the glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP) is 55 mm Hg, the capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP) is 15 mm Hg, and the glomerular colloid osmotic pressure (GCOP) is 35 mm Hg?
5 mm Hg
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is regulated directly by which of the following hormones?
Angiotensin-II and atrial natriuretic peptide
Glomerular filtrate is produced as a result of
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
What effect will vasodilation of the afferent arteriole have on glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
It will increase the GHP and the GFR
Which of the following types of membrane transport does not use carrier proteins?
What type of substances are found in the filtrate?
Water and small solutes
Which part of the nephron loop are chloride ions actively reabsorbed?
Thick ascending limb
What is net filtration pressure (NFP) in mm Hg in the glomerular capillaries?
When blood volume increases, ______ will be released
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Glomerular colloid osmotic pressure (GCOP) is created by __________
proteins such as albumin in the blood
How much urine, in liters, is typically produced in a 24-hour period?
In the absence of hormones, the distal tube and the collecting ducts are relatively ______ to water.
Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can lead to all of the following activities, except ________
increasing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
The three layers of the filtration membrane, from deep to superficial, are
glomerular capillaries, basal lamina, and podocytes
Reabsorption is the movement of molecules from the _____ into the _____.
renal tubules; peritubular capillaries
What does the countercurrent mechanism accomplish in the nephron loop?
Creation of a steep concentration gradient for continued water reabsorption
The most important function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) is to
secrete renin in response to decreased renal blood pressure or blood flow
Which of the following effects is the result of angiotensin-II (Ang-II)?
Ang-II promotes thirst
The reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the proximal tubule helps regulate ________
The _____ acts as a countercurrent exchanger in the renal medulla
The principal and intercalated cells of the late distal tubule and collecting system actively secrete _____ from the interstitial fluid into the filtrate.
Which hormones promote facultative water reabsorption?
Aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
What is the normal value for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in ml/min?
GFR is regulated by all of the following factors except
Countercurrent refers to the
exchange occurring between fluids moving in opposite directions.
Severe renal failure, in which the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 50% of normal, is known as ___
During the micturition reflex
parasympathetic fibers conduct impulses from the spinal cord that cause contraction of the detrusor muscle
Which of the following statements regarding urethral anatomy is incorrect?
The male urethra is shorter than the female urethra
voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions
The muscular band that acts as a valve permitting voluntary control of micturition is called the
external urethral sphincter
Which of the following substances may be present in urine in significant amounts when the kidneys are functioning normally?
Each of the following characteristics is typical of urine except _________
a pH of 3.0
What initiates the micturition reflex?
Stretch receptors in the wall of the urinary bladder signal the sacral region of the spinal cord.
The type of tissue lining the urinary bladder is
The three tissue layers of the ureter, from superficial to deep, are
adventitia, muscularis, and mucosa
Which of the following results would be considered abnormal in a urinalysis?
The presence of albumin
Which of the following solutes should not be found in filtrate?
The trigone of the urinary bladder is created by ________
the openings to the two ureteral orifices and the internal urethral orifice
Renal clearance is defined as ______
the rate at which the kidneys remove a substance from the blood
Starting at the tip of the medullary pyramid, the correct sequence of structures that urine passes through on its way out of the body is
calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra
Which of the following factors would trigger a concern during a urinalysis?
Which of the following individuals has the highest total body water percentage?
Which of the following statements best describes the principle of mass balance?
What is gained by the body must equal what is lost by the body
Which of the following functions is not an important role of hydrogen ions?
Decreases sodium ion reabsorption
What is the main component of all body fluids?
Which of the following conditions is characterized by a decreased volume and increased concentration of the extracellular fluid (ECF)?
For which imbalance is the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) appropriate?
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Which of the following pH values is most acidic?
pH of 2
How much water does an average person need to drink per day?
In what direction will water move when hypotonic fluids are present in the plasma?
Water is pulled out of the interstitial fluid and plasma into the cell
A patient with heart failure is administered an intravenous line containing a solution of hypertonic sodium chloride. For which of the following patients is this solution an appropriate choice?
A patient experiencing overhydration, or hypotonic hydration
What effect does an increase in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) have on the volume of extracellular fluid (ECF)?
ECF increases when ADH is present
Which of the following sources accounts for the majority of our total body water?
What is the most common base in the human body?
What would be the effect of a hypertonic extracellular fluid on a cell?
Water will move out of the cytosol and the cell shrinks
Which of the following hormones functions to regulate fluid balance in the body?
How much urine is lost through obligatory water loss each day?
Which of the following solutes has a higher concentration in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?
Fluid balance in the human body is roughly equivalent to ________
Which of the following pH values is considered basic, or alkaline?
pH of 10
What determines the hydrostatic pressure of a solution?
The force that fluids exert
An excess accumulation of interstitial fluid is called _____________
Which of the following functions is not associated with water?
Acts as a nonpolar solvent
What chemical dissociates in water to release a hydrogen ion (H+)?
What system is responsible for the most common route of water loss from the body?
What percentage of body fluids does interstitial fluid account for?
Which of the following solutes will dissociate into ions when placed in water?
What part of the brain controls the thirst mechanism?
What is the main difference in composition of plasma and interstitial fluid?
What happens to the pH of a solution when hydrogen ions are added?
The pH decreases
Under what condition might it be beneficial to administer hypertonic sodium chloride to a patient?
What acid-base imbalance has an elevated blood pH and an elevated bicarbonate ion level?
What is the appropriate respiratory compensation for alkalosis?
Decreased respiratory rate
Which of the following effects tend to be caused by hypernatremia?
Angiotensin-II restores fluid-homeostasis when dehydration occurs as a result of inadequate fluid intake. Which of the following actions is not an effect of angiotensin-II?
Which hormone has no role in potassium ion regulation?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What ion concentration is linked to calcium ion concentration and regulated by vitamin D3 (calcitriol)?
What is the main buffer system of the extracellular fluid (ECF)?
Carbonic acid-bicarbonate ion buffer system
Which of the following side effects is most likely to develop if a patient is given aldosterone inhibitors?
What effect will an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the plasma have on the plasma pH?
The pH will decrease.
What is the most abundant extracellular cation?
What is the biggest source of metabolic acids in the body?
Which of the following actions is a primary role of the phosphate buffer system?
Buffer intracellular fluid (ICF)
What is the most common cause for hypernatremia?
What leads to respiratory acidosis?
Where are the majority of calcium ions stored in the body?
What is most abundant intracellular cation?
What triggers the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
Decreasing calcium ion concentration of the blood
Through what two organ systems are carbon dioxide eliminated from the body?
Respiratory and urinary systems
What is the pH range resulting from a normal hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids?
Which of the following factors is a possible cause for respiratory alkalosis?
Brain tumor on the respiratory centers
How does the respiratory system work to decrease acidosis?
Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.
What is a major function of potassium ions in the body?
Maintaining resting potential of neurons and muscle cells
Which of the following ions is an important component of osseous tissue?
Which of the following functions is associated with chloride ions in the body?
Involved in the secretion of newly formed bicarbonate ions from erythrocytes
Which of the following locations is a site of potassium ion secretion?
A patient is experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis, which causes metabolic acidosis. If that patient experienced damage to the kidneys from diabetes mellitus, predict how the body compensates to return blood pH to normal.
Hyperventilation will return blood pH to normal.
What product forms when a hydrogen ion from a strong acid is accepted by a bicarbonate ion?
Which ion imbalance causes the plateau phase of the cardiac muscle cell action potential to shorten, making the heart contractions shorter and weaker?
Hyperventilation is the compensation for an acid-base imbalance known as ________.
Which hormone influences the concentration of hydrogen ions in the filtrate formed by the kidneys?
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