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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Period 5 Vocab
Terms in this set (77)
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
War between Texas settlers and Mexico from 1835-1836 resulting in the formation of the Republic of Texas
(1846-1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protected
1848. Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
(JP), David Wilmot Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico (1846), Calhoun against with his compact theory (govt. created by states)
Compromise of 1850
(MF) by Daniel Webster, California wanted to join the Union, but if California was accepted the North would gain control of the Senate, and Southerners threatened to secede from the Union. This compromise set up California joining the Union as a free state, New Mexico and Utah use popular sovereignty to decide the question of slavery, slave trading is banned in the nation's capital, The Fugitive Slave Law is passed, and the border between Texas and New Mexico was set.
Authority of the people
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Pro slaveryites from Missouri who fraudulently voted in the Kansas popular sovereignty election.
Anti-slavery activists who demanded the immediate end of slavery.
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
A political party formed in 1848 from a merger between the northern Democratic Party, abolitionist Liberty Party and Antislavery Party. It supported abolition and nominated Martin Van Buren has their candidate for president
A party formed that was against slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It was formed in 1854. Abe Lincoln was a republican president. They wanted Kansas to be admitted as a free state, and they were against popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery.
Dred Scott Decision
Supreme Court decision that deemed the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, declared slaves to be "property" that could not be removed without due process (Fifth Amendment).
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
When Lincoln was elected, Southerners felt their political voice in the government was lost. They believed the only way to preserve their life was to secede (withdraw) from the Union. This caused a Civil War between the North and South, in which the North attempted to regain the South as part of the Union.
1861 This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war.
-Where the Civil War essentially started. When the Union tried to resupply the fort and the South fired on the fort, the war was inevitable.
Five slave states-Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia-that did not secede during the Civil War. To keep the states in the Union, Abraham Lincoln insisted that the war was not about abolishing slavery but rather protecting the Union.
the body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)
- This was created by the Union, and was composed with six components which involves on liberating slaves, blockading in the Southern area, capturing and controlling enemy base and defeat the troops by dividing them
Confederate efforts to use the importance of southern cotton to Britain's textile industry to persuade the British to support the Confederacy in the Civil War
A ship built by the British. Not originally built to be a war ship but in 1862 the confederates gave it a crew and weapons. It captured over sixty union vessels before it accepted a challenge from a union cruiser in 1864 off the coast of France.
Monitor vs Merrimac
monitor prevented souths ironclad ship from seriously challenging the US naval blockade; the ease at which the two ironclads destroyed wooden sailing ships was to revolutionize the future of naval warfare
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North succeeded in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
(AL) , Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Siege of Vicksburg
1863 Union army's blockade of Vicksburg, Mississippi, that led the city to surrender during the Civil War
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins
Surrender at Appomattox
Lee surrendered after steadily losing ground and after finding himself unable to lift the siege of Petersburg. Petersburg fell to Grant on April 2. Lee than abandoned Richmond, the Confederate Capitol, and fled west only to surrender a week later on April 9. This essentially ended the war, although some fighting continued until the end of May
Assassination of Lincoln
At the Ford's Theatre. Killed by John Wilkes Booth. "Sic semper tyrannis". Outpouring of grief throughout the North. -New York Draft Riots: violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln sent several regiments of militia and volunteer troops to control the city.
1865. Amendement abolishing and continually prohibiting slavery. With limited exception, such as those guilty of comitting a crime, it also prevents indentured servitude.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Any code of law that defined and especially limited the rights of former slaves after the Civil War.
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
A plan by Abraham Lincoln that would help restore the South by allowing a southern state to rejoin the union if at least 10% of it's voters swore loyalty to the union and if slavery were abolished. The plan also gave amnesty to some southerners.
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
1867; divided the South into five districts and placed them under military rule; required Southern States to ratify the 14th amendment; guaranteed freedmen the right to vote in convention to write new state constitutions
Impeachment of Johnson
1868 violated the Tenure of Office Act, but really was because of his stubborn defiance of Congress on Reconstruction. Fell one vote short
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
Northerners who moved to the south during the reconstruction period and became in control of various southern states
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither candidate had an electoral majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised
Compromise of 1877
..., Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto; later elected president of the Republic of Texas
James K. Polk
"dark horse" Democratic candidate; acquired majority of the western US (Mexican Cession, Texas Annexation, Oregon Country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury
(1849-1850), Whig president who was a Southern slave holder, and war hero (Mexican-American War). Won the 1848 election. Surprisingly did not address the issue of slavery at all on his platform. He died during his term and his Vice President was Millard Fillmore.
A veteran of the War of 1812, senator and diplomat, the "Father of Popular Sovereignty," Whig candidate in 1848
(FP) , Well-known abolitionist. used violence to stop slavery immediately, involved in the Pottawatomie Massacre, he was tried, convicted of treason and hung... he became a martyr.
Abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severely injured him
A hot tempered Congressman of South Carolina took vengeance in his own hands. He beat Sumner with a cane until he was restrained by other Senators. He later resigned from his position, but was soon reelected.
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
A woman who was outraged to hear the part of the Missouri Compromise of 1850 that would help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves. She described her feelings about the law in a book she wrote, called Uncle Tom's Cabin, a novel that portrayed slavery is brutal and immoral
1808-1889) First and only president of the Confederate States of America after the election of President Abraham Lincoln in 1860 led to the secession of many southern states.
A Senator from Kentucky who made a last effort to save the Union by introducing a bill to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific, and he proposed an amendment to the Constitution that would guarantee forever the right to hold slaves in states south of the compromise line.
Robert E. Lee
American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson
His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, which the general survived, albeit with the loss of an arm to amputation.
Ulysses S. Grant
..., an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
George B. McClellan
A general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
John Wilkes Booth
..., was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
An American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician He helped support reform movements and anti-slavery efforts through his New York Tribune newspaper
William "Boss" Tweed
William Marcy "Boss" Tweed was the leader of New York's Tammany Hall and the most notorious of all late nineteenth-century corrupt politicians. He extracted millions from graft-ridden city contracts. He was lampooned by cartoonist Thomas Nast, and eventually jailed (1873).
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