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bonds formed from the sharing of valence electrons

structural formula

an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule


two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

VSEPR model

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model, which is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of electrons around the central atom

coordinate covalent bond

a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons a.k.a dative covalent bond


the combining of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies


any acid that contains oxyanions


a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

sigma bond

a single covalent bond that is formed when an electron pair is shared by the direct overlap of bonding orbitals

polar covalent

unequal sharing of electrons

pi bond

formed when parallel orbitals overlap to share electrons

covalent bond

chemical bond that forms when two atoms share electrons


the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure


reaction or process which absorbs energy


reaction or process which releases energy

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