18 terms

Chapter 6 Cellular Respiration

Honors Biology
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aerobic
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
anaerobic
A process that does not use oxygen
ATP synthase
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
autotrophs
Organisms that are able to make their own food
cellular respiration
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
citric acid cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
consumers
An organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.
electron transport
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
electron transport chain
Any set of membrane-bound protein complexes and smaller soluble electron carriers involved in a coordinated series of redox reactions in which the potential energy of electrons transferred from reduced donors is successively decreased and used to pump protons from one side of a membrane to the other.
fermentation
An anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular process in which organic foods are converted into simpler compounds, and chemical energy (ATP) is produced
glycolysis
A metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
heterotrophs
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.
NADH
The reduced form of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). This is the most common electron carrier in cellular respiration.
oxidation
An organic compound can react with oxygen at high temperatures to form carbon dioxide and water
photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
producers
Make their own food from compounds obtained from their environment
redox reaction
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
reduction
Any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen)