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150 terms

Soc. Final

STUDY
PLAY
is a social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power.
Politics
Teresa's children do not have a curfew and have few house rules. Teresa's parenting style is
permissive
According to Weber, the task of a teacher is to
provide students with knowledge and scientific knowledge
Generally, the Internet has
increased our interactions with family and friends.
Unlike functionalist and conflict theories, symbolic interactionism is a _____-level theory.
micro
George is preparing his lecture for his next class. He is in his office with the door closed. He has the textbook open and is writing notes quickly. George is in the _____.
back stage
_____ coined the term "power elite" to refer to a pyramid of power that characterizes American democracy.
C. Wright Mills
Research indicates that the likelihood of women worldwide being victims of physical abuse varies - higher in some countries than in others. This finding suggests that sociobiology
is questionable.
By using _____, social scientists found that the programmatic effects of the DARE program were insignificant (i.e., students who completed the DARE program were no less likely to use drugs than students who did not complete the program).
evaluation research
Riley is studying gendered stereotypes in an organization. Riley is a/n
feminist theorist
Some critics believe that the poverty line is unrealistically low. Which of the following is not one of their arguments?
Estimates do not take into account the value of noncash benefits, such as food stamps or Medicaid.
Which theorist introduced dramaturgical analysis to examine social interaction?
Erving Goffman
Biologists focus on the role of _____ in human development. Sociologists focus on the role of _____ in human development.
heredity; socialization
For a family of four, the poverty line in 2008 was
$21, 834
Each status is associated with one or more _____.
Roles
Symbolic interactionists typically use two methodological tools in understanding everyday interaction:
ethnomethodology and dramaturgical analysis
C. Wright Mills introduced the concept of the "sociological imagination." He used this term to describe the connection between
history and biography.
Which of the following statements is not true?
Content analysis is expensive, but very useful for historical data.
Which research approach is most common among sociologists?
They are equally common.
In 2008, among 25 to 34 year olds living with their parents,
the majority were men
Almost _____ million Americans are likely to experience homelessness in a given year.
4.0
Abigail wants to be a nurse after she graduates from college. She has joined the Young Nurses Club on campus and volunteers at Community Hospital after class. For Abigail, nurses are a/n
reference group
_____ poverty is not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living.
Relative
A carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to manipulate variables and measure their effects is called a/n
experiment
Most sociologists would agree with which of the following statements?
Nature affects human development, but nurture is more significant
Identify which social class the following description illustrates: This social class is more diverse than those above it. Individuals in this social class generally earned their wealth and are called nouveau riche.
lower-upper class
Which of the following is not a stage in the research process?
manipulating the data
Julia discovered a new bone in the monkey skeleton by chance. This is an example of the
serendipity effect
The _____ organizes a society's distribution of goods and services.
economy
Your sociology class this semester is an example of a/n
secondary group
Andrew was born to a single mother. He started preschool at age 4 and finished high school at age 18. Andrew attended college and then got his first job when he was 23. Andrew was married at age 25 and had two children by age 31. Andrew retired at 67 and died at age 82. When did Andrew's socialization begin?
At birth
Social learning theories suggest that children (in most cases) can be influenced by both _____ and _____ learning.
direct; indirect
Which of the following groups is most likely to be homeless?
single men
Political freedom studies examine
None of the above is a good single measure of political freedom
"Men are more aggressive than women because of their biology." This statement illustrates which scientific explanation of human behavior?
sociobiology
When people enter military boot camp they are expected to radically change themselves physically, mentally, and emotionally. This is an example of which kind of socialization?
resocialization
Herbert Gans suggested that poverty and inequality serve many functions for society. Which of the following is not one of those functions?
The poor serve the middle and upper classes in their homes and schools.
Status inconsistencies refer to
the conflict that arises from occupying social positions that are ranked differently.
Social interaction is
the process by which we act toward and react to people around us.
____ combine(s) online games with advertising.
Advergaming
The Johnson family cannot afford to buy food for their children. The Johnson family is living in
absolute poverty
Dale, a realtor, was preparing a new home for an open house. He cleaned the house from top to bottom and put fresh flowers around the house. Which of Goffman's expressive resources was Dale controlling?
setting
Marlin is a 33 year-old male and an avid swimmer. He has competed in several national championships. Marlin is also the father of three young children, and is married to Peggy, a computer engineer. Marlin and Peggy live in the suburbs and own a nice home. Marlin's gender is an example of a/n _____ status
ascribed
Which of the following is not a principle of democracy?
All of the above are characteristics of democracy.
The term "_____" is often used by Americans to refer to activities such as reading Shakespeare's sonnets, gourmet dining, and attending the opera.
culture
According to _____, when an organization operates rationally and effectively, workers cooperate and maintain the organization's stability and continuity.
functionalists
Carmen and her family moved to the United States when she was six. At their family home, Carmen and her family spoke Spanish and celebrated Mexican holidays. However, Carmen attended an English-speaking school and participated in American sports on the weekends. This is an example of
cultural integration.
Which of the following groups was the most likely to vote during the 2008 presidential election?
Married and college educated
Zimbardo's and Milgram's research violated which of the following ethical guidelines?
must not harm, humiliate or abuse participants
In 2008, approximately _____ percent of poor families were "severely poor."
43
_____ rely on both macro and micro level factors to explain the dynamics within groups and organizations
Feminist theorists
In the late 19th and early 20th century, which of the following changes occurred regarding children and adolescence
All of the above changes occurred.
_____ is a political system in which the state controls the lives of its citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom.
Authoritarianism
"Women are generally excluded from the most important political positions." This statement reflects which sociological perspective of political power?
feminist
_____ are voluntary and organized associations of people that attempt to influence public policy and policymakers on particular issues.
Special-interest groups
Euphemisms, gobbledygook, and inflated language are examples of
doublespeak
Which of the following is not one of the social classes that Marx identified?
communists
The _____ is the minimum level of income that the federal government considers necessary for basic subsistence.
poverty line
In the United States, eye contact is a vital component of communication. In Japan, eye contact is
discouraged
The United Nations classified countries into three categories: low, middle and high income countries. Central and East African countries are examples of _____ income countries.
low
Aidan is studying why some organizations are more effective than others. Aidan is a/n
functionalist
Critics of the _____model contend that women's focus on single issues dilutes their mobilization within a political party and decreases their power.
feminist
Which of the following theorists is not a symbolic interactionist?
Harry Harlow
Military boot camps, mental hospitals, prisons and concentration camps are examples of
total institutions
According to Durkheim, _____ are measurable aspects of social life, external to the individual.
social facts
_____ studies how people construct and learn to share definitions of reality.
Ethnomethodology
Socialization begins
birth
Every ten years, the U.S. Census Bureau mails forms to every home in the United States to collect federally mandated data. The Census Bureau is using which of the following data collection methods?
survey
With more than two million prisons, the U.S. prison system employs large numbers of workers and contributes to many independent and private contracts. This is a/n _____ of incarceration
latent function
While we occupy a status, we _____ a role.
play
Which of the following is not a primary agent of socialization?
sports
According to recent research approximately _____ percent of individuals with less than a high school education use the Internet.
39
Thomas studies eating patterns within families. Thomas is a _____-sociologist
micro
The invention of the car has influenced which of the following aspects of nonmaterial culture?
all of the above
In industrial societies, adolescence is _____; in developing countries, adolescence is
prolonged; quickened
Murray describes his sampling technique, the sample size, and the characteristics of the respondents in his study. Murray is engaging in which stage of the research process?
describing the data collection methods
Gender, age and ethnicity are examples of
ascribed statuses and master statuses
According to George Herbert Mead, in the play stage children learn how to perform a role they don't yet occupy. Mead referred to this process as
anticipatory socialization
Which of the following statements is true regarding correlation and causation in social research?
Social research does not address issues of causation.
Which of the following represent the golden rules of ethical research?
do no harm, informed consent, confidentiality
Identify which social class the following description illustrates: This social class experiences high debts and credit card bills. Many people in this social class see their jobs as boring and routine.
working class
Genetically informed sociologists maintain that
research that combines genetics and socialization can enhance our understanding of how the environment affects genetic predisposition
The Tucker family is living on less than ____ of the federal poverty line. They are considered "severely poor" by the U.S. Census Bureau.
50%
The total dollar value of volunteer time in 2009 was
300 billion
Children who are praised are more likely to develop a strong self-image than those who are always criticized. This statement best exemplifies which theory of socialization?
social Learning
When Henry Ford produced the Model T, he
took someone else's invention and created an automobile.
The pluralist model of explaining politics stems from which major theoretical perspective?
functionalist
Marlin is a 33 year-old male and an avid swimmer. He has competed in several national championships. Marlin is also the father of three young children, and is married to Peggy, a computer engineer. Marlin and Peggy live in the suburbs and own a nice home. Which of the following is not an example of Marlin's achieved status?
Marlin is 33 years old
Which of the following is not one of Goffman's types of expressive resources
social
Which of the following is not one of the major strengths of survey research?
Surveys have very high response rates
_____, who was critical of the system of slavery, was a pioneering feminist.
Harriet Martineau
One approach to examining the relationship between variables begins with observations and ends with theory. This approach is called
inductive reasoning
People create and reinforce stratification. This statement best represents which theoretical perspective?
symbolic interactionist
In a hallway, most people walk on the right side, allowing others to pass as needed. This is an example of a
norm
_____ authority is most common in nonindustrialized societies.
traditional
Which of the following statements is best associated with Cooley's "looking-glass self?"
Children acquire a sense of self through their interactions with others and interpretations of how others view them.
Out of 163 countries around the world that hold elections, the United States ranks _____ in voter turnout, with about half of U.S. citizens voting.
140
Adrian, from the time he was born, began learning how to think and behave effectively in society. He learned language, norms, and values first from his parents and then from his peers. Adrian went through a process of
socialization
Travis has struggled with his school work for several years. Now that he has started high school, Travis believes that his teachers will judge him from his past work. Travis is in which of Cooley's stages?
Phase 2: interpretation
_____ includes the norms, values and beliefs that people say they hold.
Ideal culture
The textbook identifies several major micro-level perspectives in understanding social interaction. Which of the following is not one of these perspectives
functionalist theory
Single-mother families are most likely to be poor than married-couple families because of
increases in divorce and unmarried childbearing
During decision-making tasks, _____; during conversations about work or children, _____.
men are more talkative than women; women are more talkative than men.
In the U.S., the top one percent of U.S. households has _____ of all wealth and _____ of all income.
35%; 43%
India outlawed the caste system in _____, but caste divisions are still deeply embedded in the culture.
1949
As a discipline, sociology promotes
cultural relativism
_____ statuses are those that we cannot change, control or choose.
ascribed
In this system of closed social stratification, some individuals own other individuals
slavery
Noah is studying social class. He is asking individuals to identify the social classes within their own neighborhood. Which approach is Noah using to measure social class?
the reputational approach
According to _____, people rule through pluralism.
functionalism
According to feminist theorists, women hit _____, organizational biases that prevent them from achieving the highest leadership positions.
a glass ceiling
_____ tend to overstate stability and ignore worker dissatisfaction and alienation
Functionalists
Which of the following statements is not true?
Primary groups are highly structured
Tax dollars should be used to fund students attending private schools." This statement reflects the views of which political party?
republican
One approach to examining the relationship between variables begins with theory and is tested through data collection. This approach is called
deductive reasoning
Robert and Kendra are studying the effects of alcohol on car accidents among teenagers. In this example, _____ is the independent variable and _____ is the dependent variable.
alcohol; car accidents
Some recent studies have concluded that
there is no evidence that watching television causes violence.
Which political party is the most likely to fight for pork barrel money?
both Republicans and Democrats
Several recent studies have found that the racial difference in medical care is largely a result of African American patients'
interaction with physicians
Which of the following data collection methods are most susceptible to ethical violations?
field research
Liz runs on the track team. She is a sociology major and has three roommates. Liz has two sisters and one brother. Liz enjoys watching movies and swimming. Which of the following is Liz's master status
female
Which of the following is not a component of Ritzer's "McDonaldization" of society?
creativity
_____ assert that organizations are based on power differentials.
Conflict theorists
Members of Congress, lobbyists, interest groups, and the media represent the _____, according to Mills.
middle level of power
If Kyle holds up two fingers in the peace sign, he is using which of the following
symbols
Human development is fairly fixed." This statement is an example of which side of the nature/nurture debate?
The statement is an example of the nature side of the debate.
Like the rest of her teammates, Sarah participates in a team rally before each game. This is an example of
culture
Violation of a _____ is punishable by a political authority.
law
A voluntary association is a formal organization that is
created by people who share a common set of interests and who do not get paid for their participation.
Barry enjoys watching football with his son. When his son asked him permission to go to a game, Barry replied, "Sure, whatever." Barry's parenting style is
permissive
The view that people attach subjective meanings to their actions is a hallmark of which theory?
symbolic interactionism
Which one of the following sociological perspectives is often criticized for overlooking diversity and social change in explaining culture?
functionalism
Which of the following is not one of the effective tactics used by special-interest groups
protesting
Which of the following is not an accurate sociological statement about culture?
Culture is similar across cultures
Karl Marx argued that capitalism benefits the rich and that society would ultimately be reduced to just two classes: _____ and _____.
bourgeoisie; proletariat
Carter is a full-time college student and works at a factory 30 hours each week. Carter is likely experiencing
role conflict
Hugs, smiles, gifts, and praise are examples of
positive sanctions
According to conflict theorists, which of the following is not considered to be a key source of economic inequality
None of the above - they are all considered to be key sources of economic inequality
Sociology is important in your everyday life because it
All of the above
Sociological research is important in our everyday lives because it
creates new knowledge.
According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, where are active hate groups concentrated?
in southeastern United States
The respect, recognition, or regard attached to a social position is called
prestige
When Michael and Wendy got married, they exchanged wedding rings and vows as _____ of their commitment to one another.
sumbols
_____ refers to people's intended and recognized activities in a society.
Manifest functions
This early sociologist published extensively in the United States on topics such as social disorganization, immigration, and urban neighborhoods.
jane addams
Jane Addams was largely ignored by her colleagues at the University of Chicago because
gender discrimination was rampant
Social class affects all aspects of our lives. Max Weber termed the consequences of social stratification
life chances
Rick thinks that the students in his class do not like him. Because of this, Rick will not attend the school dance. Rick is in which of Cooley's stages?
Phase 3: response
Sociologists are calling for a "_____," suggesting that the nature/nurture debate is becoming outdated.
genetically informed sociology
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a social group?
All of the above are characteristics of a social group